Control Components Using Si, GaAs, and GaN Technologies

Control Components Using Si, GaAs, and GaN Technologies

by Inder Bahl

Hardcover

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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781608077113
Publisher: Artech House, Incorporated
Publication date: 08/28/2014
Pages: 280
Product dimensions: 7.20(w) x 10.20(h) x 1.00(d)

Table of Contents

Preface xi

Chapter 1 Introduction 1

1.1 History of Control Components 1

1.2 Types of Control Components 2

1.3 Solid-State Switching Devices 3

1.4 Design of Control Components 5

1.5 Fabrication of Control Components 9

1.6 Applications 12

1.7 Book Organization 14

References 15

Chapter 2 Control Devices 19

2.1 PIN Diodes 19

2.1.1 Operation of PIN Diodes 19

2.1.2 PIN Diode Models 21

2.2 GaAs MESFETs 24

2.2.1 Operation of MESFETs 24

2.2.2 Linear Switch FET Models 26

2.2.3 Nonlinear Switch FET Models 33

2.3 GaAs HEMTs 36

2.4 GaAs HBTs 39

2.5 GaN HEMTs 39

2.6 CMOS Transistors 40

2.6.1 Operation of CMOS Switch 40

2.6.2 Various Body Floating Techniques 42

2.6.3 CMOS Transistor Models 44

2.7 Other Devices 45

2.7.1 Schottky Diodes 46

2.7.2 Varactor Diodes 49

2.8 Transistor Model Scaling 49

2.9 Biasing of Switching Devices 50

2.9.1 Biasing of PIN Diodes 50

2.9.2 Biasing of Transistors 58

2.10 Switching Speed 59

2.10.1 Switching Speed of PIN Diodes 59

2.10.2 Switching Speed of Transistors 61

2.11 Comparison of Switching Devices 62

References 62

Chapter 3 Switches 67

3.1 Introduction 67

3.1.1 Switch Parameters 67

3.1.2 Devices for Switches 69

3.1.3 Basic Requirements of a Switch for Wireless Applications 69

3.2 Design of Switches 70

3.2.1 Types of Switches 70

3.2.2 Switch. Configurations 72

3.2.3 Basic Theory of Switches 75

3.3 Multiport Switches 78

3.3.1 Multithrow Switches 78

3.3.2 Matrix Switches 79

3.3.3 Diversity Switch 79

3.4 High Isolation Switches 81

3.5 Broadband Switches 84

3.6 High-Power Switches 86

3.6.1 Impedance Transformation Technique 88

3.6.2 Stacked FETs Method 90

3.6.3 Resonant Circuit Technique 91

3.6.4 GaN HEMT Switches 92

3.6.5 Power Handling of PIN Diode Switches 93

3.7 Low Distortion Switches 94

3.8 Performance of Switch Circuits 96

3.8.1 PIN Diode Switch Circuits 96

3.8.2 MESFET Switch Circuits 99

3.8.3 HEMT Switch Circuits 101

3.8.4 CMOS Switch Circuits 107

3.8.5 Comparison of Switch Technologies 109

3.9 Novel Switch Configurations 110

3.9.1 Filter-Integrated Switch 110

3.9.2 Redundant Switch 111

3.9.3 Switched Variable Power Amplifier 111

3.9.4 Switches with Integrated Control 113

3.10 Intermodulation Analysis of Switches 113

3.10.1 PIN Diode Switches 114

3.10.2 MESFET Switches 114

References 115

Chapter 4 Phase Shifters 123

4.1 Types of Phase Shifters 123

4.1.1 Digital Phase Shifters 123

4.1.2 Analog Phase Shifters 126

4.1.3 Active Phase Shifters 127

4.2 Theory of Phase Shifters 127

4.2.1 Reflection-Type Phase Shifter 127

4.2.2 Switched-Line Phase Shifter 133

4.2.3 Loaded-Line Phase Shifters 136

4.2.4 Switched-Network Phase Shifters 142

4.2.5 Embedded-Device Phase Shifters 152

4.3 Multibit Phase Shifter Circuits 155

4.3.1 RMS Errors 155

4.3.2 PIN Diode Phase Shifters 156

4.3.3 MESFET/HEMT Phase Shifters 157

4.3.4 CMOS Phase. Shifters 163

4.4 Analog Phase Shifters 165

4.4.1 Voltage-Controlled Reflection-Type Phase Shifters 165

4.4.2 Voltage-Controlled Transmission-Type Phase Shifters 166

4.4.3 Analog Varactor Diode Phase Shifters 169

4.4.4 Analog CMOS Phase Shifters 170

4.5 Broadband Phase Shifters 171

4.5.1 GaAs MESFET/HEMT Broadband Phase Shifters 173

4.5.2 Broadband CMOS Phase Shifters 179

4.6 Ultrawideband Phase Shifters 180

4.7 Millimeter-Wave Phase Shifters 185

4.7.1 PIN/Schottky Diode Millimeter-Wave Phase Shifters 185

4.7.2 MESFET/HEMT Millimeter-Wave Phase Shifters 185

4.7.3 CMOS Millimeter-Wave Phase Shifters 189

4.8 Active Phase Shifters 190

4.8.1 Dual-Gate FET Phase Shifters 191

4.8.2 Switchable-Amplifier Phase Shifters 192

4.8.3 Vector Modulator Phase Shifters 192

References 197

Chapter 5 Attenuators 207

5.1 Introduction 207

5.1.1 Types of Attenuators 207

5.1.2 Theory of Attenuators 210

5.1.3 Fabrication of Attenuators 214

5.2 Fixed Value Attenuators 214

5.2.1 Attenuator Pad 214

5.2.2 Temperature Variable Attenuator 215

5.3 Multibit Attenuators 216

5.3.1 PIN Diode Step Attenuators 217

5.3.2 GaAs MMIC Step Attenuators 218

5.3.3 Si CMOS Step Attenuators 220

5.4 Variable Voltage Attenuators 222

5.4.1 PIN Diode Variable Attenuators 223

5.4.2 MESFET Variable Attenuators 224

5.4.3 CMOS Variable Attenuator 227

5.4.4 GaN HEMT Attenuator 228

5.4.5 Linear Voltage Variable Attenuators 229

5.6 Other Attenuator Circuits 236

5.6.1 Reflection-Type Attenuators 236

5.6.2 Balanced Attenuators 240

5.6.3 Frequency Dependent Attenuators 242

5.6.4 Phase Compensated Attenuators 244

5.6.5 CMOS Attenuator with Integrated Switch 245

5.7 Distortion in Attenuators 245

5.7.1 PIN Diode Attenuators 246

5.7.2 FET Attenuators 247

References 248

Chapter 6 Limiters 253

6.1 Introduction 253

6.1.1 Limiter Characterization 254

6.1.2 Limiter Types 255

6.2 PIN Diode Limiters 259

6.2.1 Analysis of PIN Diode Limiter 259

6.2.2 Si PIN Diode Limiters in Microstrip Configuration 263

6.2.3 GaAs PIN Diode Limiters 265

6.2.4 Matched Limiters 267

6.3 Schottky Diode Limiters 269

6.3.1 Analysis of Schottky Diode Limiter 271

6.3.2 Schottky Diode Design and Limiter Configuration 273

6.3.3 Broadband High Power Limiters 274

6.4 Monolithic GaAs Schottky Diode Limiter Circuits 275

6.4.1 Limiting Amplifiers 276

6.4.2 10-W Limiter with Embedded LNA 278

6.5 Other Diode Limiters 282

6.5.1 BiCMOS Diode Limiter 282

6.5.2 GaN Schottky Diode Limiters 283

References 283

Appendix A Physical Constants and Frequency Band Designations 287

Appendix B Thermal Design of Devices 289

B.1 Thermal Basics 289

B.2 Transistor Thermal Design 291

B.2.1 Cooke Model for Single-Gate Devices 291

B.2.2 Cook Model for Multiple-Gate Devices 292

B.2.3 Pulsed Operation 294

B.2.4 Component Assembly Thermal Design Considerations 295

References 296

Index 297

About the Author 299

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