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Cosmopolitan Europe by Ulrich Beck, Edgar Grande, Edgar Grande

Europe is Europe's last remaining realistic political utopia. But Europe remains to be understood and conceptualized. This historically unique form of international community cannot be explained in terms of the traditional concepts of politics and the state, which remain trapped in the straightjacket of methodological nationalism. Thus, if we are to understand cosmopolitan Europe, we must radically rethink the conventional categories of social and political analysis.

Just as the Peace of Westphalia brought the religious civil wars of the seventeenth century to an end through the separation of church and state, so too the separation of state and nation represents the appropriate response to the horrors of the twentieth century. And just as the secular state makes the exercise of different religions possible, so too cosmopolitan Europe must guarantee the coexistence of different ethnic, religious and political forms of life across national borders based on the principle of cosmopolitan tolerance.

The task the authors have set themselves in this book is nothing less than to rethink Europe as an idea and a reality. It represents an attempt to understand the process of Europeanization in light of the theory of reflexive modernization and thereby to redefine it at both the theoretical and the political level. This book completes Ulrich Beck's trilogy on 'cosmopolitan realism', the volumes of which complement each other and can be read independently. It is essential reading for anyone interested in the key social and political developments of our time.

About the Author:
Ulrich Beck is Professor of Sociology at Ludwig-Maximillian University of Munich

About theAuthor:
Edgar Grande is Professor of Comparative Politics at the Geschwister-Scholl Institute for Political Science

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780745635620
Publisher: Wiley
Publication date: 11/16/2007
Series: Please Select a Ser.
Pages: 328
Product dimensions: 6.20(w) x 9.35(h) x 0.95(d)

About the Author

U. Beck, Professor of Sociology, Ludwig-Maximillian University of Munich

Table of Contents

Preface     xii
Introduction: The European Malaise and Why the Idea of Cosmopolitan Europe Could Overcome It     1
Rethinking Europe     1
What is meant by cosmopolitan Europe?     5
What is Europe?     6
What is cosmopolitanism?     11
Sociological and political cosmopolitanism: from the national to the cosmopolitan outlook in research on Europe     17
Institutionalized cosmopolitanism     19
Deformed cosmopolitanism     20
Cosmopolitan realism     20
European self-delusions     21
The national self-delusion     21
The neoliberal self-delusion     23
The technocratic self-delusion     24
The Eurocentric self-delusion     25
The Reflexive Modernization of Europe     28
From the first to the second modernity: Europeanization revisited - from the perspective of the theory of reflexive modernization     28
Europe and the reflexive modernization of state and society     31
The inclusive Europe     33
Europeanization as regime of side effects     35
Europeanization as transformative regime     40
Europeanization as self-propelling regime     46
Cosmopolitan Empire: Statehood and PoliticalAuthority in the Process of Europeanization     50
The national either/or Europe and its predicaments     50
State and empire     54
What is meant by empire?     54
State and empire in comparison     56
Empire and models of international order in comparison     58
Imperium and empire: historical variants of imperial constitution of order     60
Features of the European Empire     62
Asymmetrical political order     63
Open, variable spatial structure     64
Multinational societal structure     65
Integration through law, consensus and cooperation     66
Welfare vs. security     67
Horizontal and vertical institutional integration     68
Network power     69
Cosmopolitan sovereignty     70
Ambivalence of delimitation and limitation     71
Emancipatory vs. repressive cosmopolitanism     71
European Empire and the transcendence of the nation-state     72
The function of the nation-states in the European Empire     72
The modus operandi of the European Empire     75
European sovereignty as a positive-sum game     77
The politics of interdependence     79
The politics of golden handcuffs: on the reflexive self-interest of cosmopolitan states     81
Capital of trust: obligating others     84
The cosmopolitan organization of diversity: the European Empire and its contradictions     86
Constitutional tolerance     87
Transnational diversity     88
Transnational incrementalism     89
Ordered pluralism     90
Reflexive decisionism     91
Multiple memberships     92
European Social Space: On the Social Dynamics of Variable Borders     94
On the Europe-blindness of sociology: critique of the fixation of Europe research on the state     94
Horizontal Europeanization: questions, indicators, empirical developments     98
Language     99
Identity     102
Education     105
Educational curriculums     105
Educational mobility     108
The economy     109
Labour market     109
Companies     112
Empirical cosmopolitan social theory of Europeanization     113
The problem     113
European society as interdependence     117
European society as mobility     120
European integration through European expansion      122
The internalization of external conflicts     124
European society as civil society     125
The uncoupling of nation and civil rights     125
Civil society from above?     127
European society as civilization     129
European society as memory     131
Strategies of European Cosmopolitanization     136
European cosmopolitanization as a meta-power game     137
Strategies of Europeanization     141
State strategies     142
Nationalistic egoism     143
Intergovernmental minimalism     143
Cosmopolitan realism     144
Cosmopolitan idealism     145
Capital strategies     146
National protectionism     146
European protectionism     147
European neoliberalism     147
Global neoliberalism     148
Technocratic strategies     148
Deformations of cosmopolitan Europe     150
The economic deformation     150
The nationalist deformation     151
The bureaucratic deformation     153
Strategies of European cosmopolitanization     155
Cunning of reason? The side-effects power of the global economy and its limits     155
Cosmopolitanization from below: the role of civil society movements     157
Cosmopolitanization from outside: Europeanization and global political cosmopolitanism     158
Cosmopolitanization from above: supranational institutions and civil society movements     160
What makes cosmopolitanization strategies realistic?     161
Europeanization as positive-sum game     162
Problems of perception or conversion     162
The problematic of interest-transformation     162
Risk shock and its strategic utilization     163
Pioneering strategy     165
Value strategy     167
The prospects of strategies of Europeanization: the examples of migration and provision for the elderly     168
Inequality and Recognition: Europe-Wide Social Conflicts and their Political Dynamics     171
Critique of methodological nationalism in the sociology of inequality and research on the welfare state     174
Mobile borders, mobile patterns of inequality?     175
European regions as conflict patterns of European inequalities     178
Mobile 'We' and mobile 'Others'?     180
The recognition-inequality dilemma: on the intersection of conflicts over inequality and conflicts over the recognition of difference     185
To what extent can and should a cosmopolitan Europe promote solidarity?     189
On the Dialectic of Globalization and Europeanization: External Contradictions of Cosmopolitan Europe     192
The cosmopolitan deficit: critique of the Eurocentric outlook in the debate on Europe     193
World risk society: outline of a theory     197
General theorems     197
Global risks as a social construction     198
Global risk as reflexive globality     198
War without wars     198
Manufactured uncertainty     199
Uncertainty authorizes perception     199
Blurred lines of conflict     200
The politics of empowerment     200
The failure of national and international regulatory systems     200
The new politics of uncertainty     201
The politics of risk construction and risk minimization     201
Side effects of side effects: risk paradoxes     202
Implications for the social sciences     202
The reality and unreality of global risks as a product of cultural perceptions     203
Divergent logics of global risks: on the distinction between economic, environmental and terrorist risks     206
The European public sphere and civil society can be understood and developed as a response to world risk society     209
World risk society, the European Empire and the contradictions of a proactive security policy     212
The Iraq War and its lessons for cosmopolitan realism     214
What European cosmopolitanism can contribute to global cosmopolitanism     219
Cosmopolitan Visions for Europe     224
Three scenarios of the future Europe     226
The decay scenario     226
The stagnation scenario     227
The cosmopolitanization scenario     227
Reflexive constitutionalism: constitution and civil society in Europe     228
Cosmopolitan democracy: possibilities for legitimating the European Empire     230
Intervention strategies     234
Inclusion strategies     237
Strategies of recognition of otherness     238
Control strategies     239
The principle of the cosmopolitan integration of Europe     241
Internal integration: the principle of differentiated integration     242
External integration: on the dialectic of differentiation and expansion     249
Power and weakness in world risk society - Europe's cosmopolitan realism in a new world order     251
In the European interest: Europe's cosmopolitan interest and cosmopolitan responsibility     255
Dilemmas of cosmopolitan Europe     258
The universalistic dilemma     258
The integration dilemma     260
The insecurity dilemma     260
The boundary dilemma     261
The peace dilemma     262
Beyond arrogance and self-betrayal: culture of shared ambivalence     263
Notes     265
References and Bibliography     277
Index     300

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