The Showa Era in Japan commenced in December 1926, when Emperor Showa ascended the Throne, and came to an end in January 1989, when His Majesty passed away, ushering in the new Heisei Era. The Showa Era was marked by drastic changes in the economy, society, and political and legal sys tems, which brought about an ebb and flow in criminality and precipitated various criminal policies. From an economical, political, and criminological perspective, the Showa Era stands out as a remarkable period in Japanese his tory. The Research and Training Institute of the Ministry of Justice, which has annually published the White Paper on Crime in Japan since 1960, received Cabinet approval to introduce a special topic section, "Criminal Policy in Sho wa" in the White Paper for 1989, which was published in October the same year. This White Paper is the first comprehensive publication that deals not only with the crime situation but also with the various activities of the criminal justice system, including the police, public prosecutors' offices, courts, correctional institutions, and probation and parole supervision organisations for 63 years.
Table of ContentsI Introduction.- II Crime Trends.- Section 1. Changes of Penal Laws.- Penal Statutes in Prewar Period.- Penal Statutes Enacted in Postwar Period.- Section 2. Trends in Penal Code Offences.- Outline.- Trends in Major Criminal Offences.- Background of Criminal Trends.- Others.- Section 3. Trends in Special Law Offences.- Outline.- Trends in Special Law Offences by Category of Major Offences.- Section 4. Comparison of Crime Trends in Foreign Countries.- Number of Cases Reported and Occurrence Rates for Major Crimes.- Comparison by Crime Type.- Section 5. Trends in Crimes by Gang Organizations.- Period of Postwar Chaos.- Period of Gang Wars.- “Summit Operation” and Its Effects.- Period of Reorganization, Expansion of Territory and Monopolization.- Period of Generation Change and Transition.- III Treatment of Offenders.- Section 1. Prosecution and Trials.- Outline.- Prosecution.- Trial.- Section 2. Correction.- Outline.- Humanitarian and Socialising Approach to Prison Administration.- Scientific Trend in Prison Administration.- Changes in Prison Administration Organization.- Change in the Situation of Admission to Prisons.- Women’s Guidance Home.- Section 3. Rehabilitation of Offenders.- Establishment of Rehabilitation Service Programmes.- Release on Parole.- Probationary Supervision.- Rehabilitation Aid Society.- Pardon.- IV Juvenile Delinquency and Treatment of Juvenile Delinquents.- Section 1. Trends in Juvenile Delinquency.- Survey of Juvenile Delinquency.- General Trends in Juvenile Delinquency.- Section 2. Treatment of Juvenile Delinquents.- Outline.- Prosecution and Trials of Juvenile Delinquents.- Juvenile Classification Homes.- Juvenile Training School.- Juvenile Prisons.- Rehabilitation of Juvenile Delinquents.- V Conclusion.- Section 1. Characteristic Features of the Showa Era.- Section 2. Crime Trends.- Penal Code Offences.- Offences Involving Special Laws.- Section 3. Treatment of Offenders.- Prosecution.- Trial.- Correction.- Rehabilitation Services.- Section 4. Juvenile Delinquency.- General Trends in Juvenile Delinquency.- Treatment of Juvenile Delinquents.- Section 5. Conclusion.- Appendix I.- Appendix II.