Distributed Hydrologic Modeling Using GIS available in Hardcover
- Pub. Date:
- Kluwer Academic Publishers
This monograph sets forth a unified approach and principles for modeling hydrologic processes distributed in space and time using geographic information systems (GIS). The focus of this Second Edition is on the principles of how to implement a distributed model using geospatial data to simulate hydrologic processes. Once we embark on fully distributed representations of hydrologic processes, conservation laws form the basis for modeling, and spatial data management becomes necessary. A physics-based approach involves the laws that govern the complexities of all the paths that water travels, from precipitation falling over a river basin to the flow in the river.
Worldwide geospatial data has become readily available in GIS format. A modeling approach that can utilize this data for hydrology offers many possibilities. GIS data formats, spatial interpolation, and resolution have important effects on hydrologic simulation of the major hydrologic components of a watershed. Examples are provided that illustrate how to represent a watershed with spatially distributed data along with the many pitfalls inherent in such an undertaking. Since the First Edition, software development and applications have created a richer set of examples, and a deeper understanding of how to perform distributed hydrologic analysis and prediction. This Second Edition is oriented towards a commercially available distributed model called Vflo™. The basic edition of this model, with a 30 day license, is included on the enclosed CD-ROM (content also available from http://extras.springer.com).
Table of ContentsContents Dedication * Preface * Foreword * Acknowledgments * 1 DISTRIBUTED HYDROLOGIC MODELING * 1.1 Introduction * 1.2 Why Distributed Hydrologic Modeling? * 1.3 Distributed Model Representation * 1.4 Mathematical Analogy * 1.5 GIS Data Structures and Sources * 1.6 Surface Generation * 1.7 Spatial Resolution and Information Content * 1.8 Runoff Processes * 1.9 Hydraulic Roughness * 1.10 Drainage Networks and Resolution * 1.11 Spatially Variable Precipitation * 1.12 Distributed Hydrologic Model Formulation * 1.13 Distributed Model Calibration * 1.14 Case Studies * 1.15 Hydrologic Analysis and Prediction * 1.16 Summary * 1.17 References * 2 DATA SOURCES AND STRUCTURE * 1.1 Introduction * 1.2 Dimensionality * 1.3 Map Scale and Spatial Detail * 1.4 Datum and Scale * 1.5 Georeferenced Coordinate Systems * 1.6 Map Projections * 1.7 Data Representation * 1.8 Watershed Delineation * 1.9 Soil Classification * 1.10 Land use/Cover Classification * 1.11 Summary * 1.12 References * 3 SURFACE GENERATION * 1.1 Introduction * 1.2 Surface Generators * 1.3 Surface Generation Application * 1.4 Summary * 1.5 References * 4 SPATIAL VARIABILITY * 1.1 Introduction * 1.2 Information Content * 1.3 Fractal Interpretation * 1.4 Resolution Effects on DEMs * 1.5 Summary * 1.6 References * 5 INFILTRATION MODELING * 1.1 Introduction * 1.2 Infiltration Process * 1.3 Approaches to Infiltration Modeling * 1.4 Green-Ampt theory * 1.5 Estimation of Green-Ampt Parameters * 1.6 Attribute Error * 1.7 Summary * 1.8 References * 6 HYDRAULIC ROUGHNESS * 1.1 Introduction * 1.2 Hydraulics of Surface Runoff * 1.3 Application to the Illinois River Basin * 1.4 Summary * 1.5 References * 7 DIGITAL TERRAIN * 1.1 Introduction * 1.2Drainage Network * 1.3 Definition of Channel Networks * 1.4 Resolution Dependent Effects * 1.5 Constraining Drainage Direction * 1.6 Summary * 1.7 References * 8 PRECIPITATION MEASUREMENT * 1.1 Introduction * 1.2 Rain Gauge Estimation of Rainfall * 1.3 Radar Estimation of Precipitation * 1.4 WSR-88D Radar Characteristics * 1.5 Input for Hydrologic Modeling * 1.6 Summary * 1.7 References * 9 FINITE ELEMENT MODELING * 1.1 Introduction * 1.2 Mathematical Formulation * 1.3 Summary * 1.4 References * 10 DISTRIBUTED MODEL CALIBRATION * 1.1 Introduction * 1.2 Calibration Approach * 1.3 Distributed Model Calibration * 1.4 Automatic Calibration * 1.5 Summary * 1.6 References * 11 DISTRIBUTED HYDROLOGIC MODELING * 1.1 Introduction * 1.2 Case Studies * 1.3 Summary * 1.4 References * 12 HYDROLOGIC ANALYSIS AND PREDICTION * 1.1 Introduction * 1.2 Vflo Editions * 1.3 Vflo Features and Modules * 1.4 Model Feature Summary * 1.5 Vflo Real-time * 1.6 Data Requirements * 1.7 Relationship to Other Models * 1.8 Summary * 1.9 References * Glossary * Index *