Early Diagenesis: A Theoretical Approach

Early Diagenesis: A Theoretical Approach

by Robert A. Berner


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Early Diagenesis: A Theoretical Approach by Robert A. Berner

Diagenesis refers to changes taking place in sediments after deposition. In a theoretical treatment of early diagenesis, Robert Berner shows how a rigorous development of the mathematical modeling of diagenetic processes can be useful to the understanding and interpretation of both experimental and field observations. His book is unique in that the models are based on quantitative rate expressions, in contrast to the qualitative descriptions that have dominated the field.

In the opening chapters, the author develops the mathematical theory of early diagenesis, introducing a general diagenetic equation and discussing it in terms of each major diagenetic process. Included are the derivations of basic rate equations for diffusion, compaction, pore-water flow, burial advection, bioturbation, adsorption, radioactive decay, and especially chemical and biochemical reactions. Drawing on examples from the recent literature on continental-margin, pelagic, and non-marine sediments, he then illustrates the power of these diagenetic models in the study of such deposits.

The book is intended not only for earth scientists studying sediments and sedimentary rocks, but also for researchers in fields such as radioactive waste disposal, petroleum and economic geology, environmental pollution, and sea-floor engineering.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780691082585
Publisher: Princeton University Press
Publication date: 08/21/1980
Series: Princeton Series in Geochemistry Series
Pages: 256
Product dimensions: 6.42(w) x 9.57(h) x 0.96(d)

Table of Contents

List of Symbolsxi
Part I.Theory
2General Theory9
Preliminary Considerations9
The General Diagenetic Equation13
3Diagenetic Physical and Biological Processes15
Advective Processes15
Rate of deposition21
Some additional useful relations23
Factors affecting porosity and compaction26
Molecular diffusion31
Benthic boundary diffusion41
Transfer across the Sediment-Water Interface53
Summary of Mathematics of Diagenetic Physical and Biological Processes55
4Diagenetic Chemical Processes I: Equilibrium, Homogeneous, and Microbial Reactions57
Equilibrium Processes57
Determination of equilibrium57
Solubility equilibrium62
Equilibrium adsorption and ion exchange64
Inclusion of equilibrium processes in diagenetic equations70
Homogeneous Reactions (Including Radioactive Decay)77
Microbial (Metabolic) Reactions81
5Diagenetic Chemical Processes II: Precipitation, Dissolution, and Authigenic Processes90
Energetics of precipitation90
Crystal growth95
Transport-Controlled Growth97
Surface-Reaction Controlled Growth101
Authigenic (Mineral-Diagenetic) Processes108
Diagenetic redistribution108
Flow vs diffusion117
Precipitation (replacement) from an external source118
Causative factors in authigenic processes126
Part II.Applications
6Marine Sediments of the Continental Margins135
Diagenesis Within the Zone of Bioturbation136
Diagenesis Below the Zone of Bioturbation148
Sulfate reduction149
Ammonia formation161
Phosphate diagenesis168
Methane formation174
7Pelagic (Deep-Sea) Sediments178
Calcium Carbonate Dissolution178
Opaline Silica Dissolution190
Suboxic Organic Matter Diagenesis194
Diagenesis of Radioisotopes198
Volcanic-Seawater Reaction202
8Non-Marine Sediments206
Fresh and Brackish Water Sediments206
Salinity fluctuations206
Iron diagenesis210
Manganese diagenesis215
Hypersaline Sediments222

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