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Prentice Hall
Electro-Optical Instrumentation: Sensing and Measuring with Lasers

Electro-Optical Instrumentation: Sensing and Measuring with Lasers

by Silvano Donati


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Electro-Optical Instrumentation: Sensing and Measuring with Lasers

The complete, practical sourcebook for laser sensing and measurement

This is a systematic, up-to-date guide to laser instrumentation for sensing and measurement in contemporary scientific, industrial, automotive and avionics applications. Dr. Silvano Donati presents clear design rules and useful hints for practical implementation of a wide variety of laser instruments. For each type of instrument, the author outlines basic principles, physical limitations, reasonable performance expectations, optical design issues, and electronic signal handling—illustrated with block schemes. Coverage includes:

  • Interferometers for sub-micrometer displacement measurements
  • Nanometer vibrometers and structural integrity testing
  • Doppler velocimeters for anemometry of fluids
  • Range finders and anti-collision systems
  • Non-contact wire-diameter and particle-diameter sizing
  • Alignment and level meter apparatuses
  • Ring laser and optical fiber gyroscopes
  • Optical fiber sensors

Thorough and accessible, Electro-Optical Instrumentation offers balanced coverage of both optical and electronic issues and challenges. It will give working electronic engineers and scientists the knowledge they need to design virtually any electro-optical instrumentation system.


Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780130616104
Publisher: Prentice Hall
Publication date: 04/01/2004
Edition description: New Edition
Pages: 435
Product dimensions: 7.28(w) x 9.58(h) x 1.28(d)

About the Author

SILVANO DONATI is Full Professor and leader of the Electro-Optics Group at the University of Pavia, Italy. His research interests have included laser telemeters, interferometry; fiber gyros and current sensors; speckle pattern, and noise in CCD coupled oscillators. A Fellow Member of IEEE and OSA, and Meritorious Member of AEI, he has authored or coauthored 250 papers, guest edited several leading journals, and earned 10 patents. He is author of Photodetectors (Prentice Hall).

Read an Excerpt


This book is an outgrowth of the lecture notes for a semester course that the author has given at the University of Pavia for severalyears. The course was tailored for electronic engineer graduates in their fifth and final year ofthe curriculum (the 18th grade). The course is designed for students of the optoelectronicengineering section and is also offered as an elective to students of the instrumentation andmicroelectronics engineering sections.

During the years, I have gone through several versions of the text, trying to improveand expand the material. I have also added new topics taken from the literature or from myown research on interferometers, laser telemeters, speckle-pattern and optical fiber sensors.About terminology, electro-optics i very interdisciplinary science that receives contributionsfrom researchers whose cultural roots originate in electronics, as well in optics,laser physics, and electromagnetism. Other researchers may refer to the content of this book as measurements by lasers, coherenttechniques, optoelectronic measurements, optical metrology, and perhaps some morenames equally acceptable. I think that electro-optical instrumentation is preferable to give this field a name of itsown and to underline the connection between optics and electronics, a very fruitful synergywe have actually observed in this field through the years.

In distributing the material between text and appendixes, the rationale used here is thatcore arguments of the book are text, whereas arguments either complementary, common toother disciplines, or recalls of basics are reviewed in the appendixes.As a general scope, in this book I have tried to (i) illustrate the basic principles behindthe application; (ii) outline the guidelines for the design; and (iii) discuss the basic performanceachievable and the ultimate limit set by noise.

I have attempted to make the chapters and the accompanying appendixes selfcontaining,so that a selection of them can be used for a shorter course as well.As a guideline, in 35 hours of classroom lessons I cover most of the material presented inthe text, starting from basic ideas and going on to clarify performance limits and give developmenthints. To lessons, I add some 10 hours of lab and exercises. In the classes, I usuallyskip mathematical details and some advanced topics that are most difficult. I have anywayincluded them in the text because they illustrate the state of the art of electro-optical instrumentationand are useful for advanced study.

Based on my experience, students with a limited background in optoelectronics can followthe course profitably if they are given a primer of an additional 6 to 8 hours on the fundamentalsof lasers and fibers that are collected in the appendixes. About derivations, I have tried to keep the mathematical details to a minimum and reportjust the very straight derivations. Purposely, to report just simple expressions, I havetyped the equations all on one line to save precious typographical space. This kind of typingmay look odd at first but will be easier as the reader becomes acquainted with it.Throughout the text, special attention has been paid to complement the understandingof the basic principle with the treatment of development issues. Thus, as compared withother books on the subject, the reader will find a lot of electronic schematics about signalhandling, discussions on the impact of practical components, comments about the ultimatelimits of performance, etc. Of course, this is just the attitude we try to develop in an electronicengineer, but it is also interesting for the generic reader to grasp the engineering problemsof instrumentation.

Presently, the book does not contain problems. Actually, I prefer to publish the bookfirst and follow up with problems afterwards. Problems will be made available to the reader afew months after publication at the author's website, At the same location,instructors adopting the book for their course will be able to find a selection of viewgraphsin PowerPoint. Many individuals have helped through the years in collecting the lecture notes from whichthe book has started. I wish to especially thank Tiziana Tambosso for the help in shapingthe arguments of the book and for suggesting many good hints.It is also a pleasure to thank Risto Myllyla, Gordon Day, Peter deGroot, Jesse S. Greever,and Thierry Bosch for reading the manuscript and providing useful feedback.I hope this book will be useful to the young student as a guide and motivation to workin the exciting field of electro-optical instrumentation and to the designer as a reference to thestate of the art in this field. If the book will stimulate new ideas or development of products,my effort in writing it will be amply rewarded.

Table of Contents


1. Introduction.

Looking Back to Milestones. References.

2. Alignment, Pointing, and Sizing Instruments.

Alignment. Pointing and Tracking. Laser Level. Wire Diameter Sensor. Particle Sizing. References.

3. Laser Telemeters.

Triangulation. Time-of-Flight Telemeters. Instrumental Developments of Telemeters. Imaging Telemeters. The LIDAR. References.

4. Laser Interferometry.

Overview of Interferometry Applications. The Basic Laser Interferometers. Performance Parameters. Ultimate Limits of Performance. Read-Out Configurations of Interferometry. Laser Vibrometry. Other Applications of Injection Interferometry. White Light Interferometry. References.

5. Speckle-Pattern Instruments.

Speckle Properties. Speckle in Single-Point Interferometers. Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry. References.

6. Laser Doppler Velocimetry.

Principle of Operation. Performance Parameters. Electronic Processing of the Doppler Signal. Optical Configurations. References.

7. Gyroscopes.

Overview. The Sagnac Effect. Basic Gyro Configurations. Development of the RLG. Development of the Fiber Optics Gyro. The Resonant FOG and Other Configurations. The 3x3 FOG for the Automotive. The MEMS Gyro and Other Approaches. References.

8. Optical Fiber Sensors.

Introduction. The Optical Strain Gage: A Case Study. Readout Configuration. Multiplexed and Distributed OFS. References.

Appendix A0: Nomenclature.

Appendix A1: Lasers for Instrumentation.

Laser Basics. Frequency Stabilization of the He-Ne Laser. Semiconductor Narrow-Line and Frequency Stabilized Lasers. Diode-Pumped Solid-State Lasers. Laser Safety Issues. References.

Appendix A2: Basic Optical Interferometers.

Configurations and Performances. Choice of Optical Components. References.

Appendix A3: Propagation through the Atmosphere.

Turbidity. Turbulence. References.

Appendix A4: Optimum Filter for Timing.

Appendix A5: Propagation and Diffraction.

Propagation. The Fresnel Approximation. Examples. References.

Appendix A6: Source of Information on Electro-Optical Instrumentation.


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