Essay Writing the Secrets Revealed

Essay Writing the Secrets Revealed

by Cindy M

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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781482898729
Publisher: AuthorHouse
Publication date: 04/29/2014
Pages: 210
Product dimensions: 8.25(w) x 11.00(h) x 0.44(d)
Age Range: 1 - 17 Years

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ESSAY WRITING THE SECRETS REVEALED


By Cindy M.

Trafford Publishing

Copyright © 2013 Cindy M
All rights reserved.
ISBN: 978-1-4669-9889-6



CHAPTER 1

ESSAY WRITING THE FUNDAMENTALS

Fewer Mistakes, Greater Confidence!


Before learning how to write an essay, it is essential to first master three basic components:

1. Basic Sentence Structure,

2. The Simple Tenses, and

3. Words and Phrases to Avoid

* * *

THE BASIC SENTENCE STRUCTURE

Many teachers assume students studying English as a second language are familiar with or have mastered the structure. Likewise many of these students take the basic sentence structure for granted. Unfortunately, that is one assumption and neglect which cost marks. Writing a coherent essay is very much dependent on correct sentence structure. So here is a basic explanation.


Must remember!

A complete sentence must have at least one subject and one verb.


Must remember!

Each subject and each verb are divided into three categories respectively which create a variation in sentences.


SUBJECT NOTES

Must remember!

A subject is divided into three parts: noun, pronoun and noun phrase.

1) Noun

A noun is a general name for a person, an animal, a thing or a place.

2) Pronoun

A pronoun is a word which replaces a noun or a noun phrase. i.e. they, we, you, he, she and it.

3) Noun Phrase

A noun phrase comprises an article, one or more adjectives and a noun.


SUBJECT PRACTICE

Write three examples for each of the following noun category. An example has been done for you. Quite a number of students of ESL have lower than average vocabulary knowledge compared to an English speaker. So learn to write beyond the simple and common nouns like pencil, teacher, cat and classroom.


Nouns

Animal Ostrich Walrus Platypus

Person

Thing

Place


Noun Phrase

Write three examples of a noun phrase. An example has been done for you. Again, learn to write beyond the simple and common adjectives like cute, big, and happy. Take up the courage to write more than one adjective.


Must remember!

There is a sequence to writing adjectives. Refer to the following table.

Example: A selfish ignorant ghost writer

1. ___________________________________________________________

2. ___________________________________________________________

3. ___________________________________________________________


VERB NOTES

Must remember!

A verb is also divided into three parts: main verb, action verb and non-action verb.

1) Main Verb

The main verb refers to the infinitive verb to be.

Main Verb is / am / are / was / were

2) Action Verb

An action verb is a word which generally represents an action.

Action Verb snatch / wink / yawn

3) A non-action verb

A non-action verb is a word which does not represent an action.

Non-Action Verb accept / think / acknowledge


Must remember!

Generally, a sentence should have one subject and one verb for it to be complete. Avoid adding or combining more than one category from each component. Note the examples given.


VERB PRACTICE

Write three examples for each of the following verb category. Examples are written for you. Similar to the previous practices, write beyond the simple and common verbs like walk, sing and dream.


Identifying a complete sentence

Indicate whether the following sentences are complete or incomplete. Remember the general rule that a complete sentence must have at least one subject and one verb.


Must remember!

However, there is an exception. A subject is not necessary when giving instructions or orders. For example, it is not necessary to include the name of the person when instructing him to sit down.

Sit down! (Acceptable) Anthony, sit down! (The subject is not necessary.)


COMPLEMENT AND MODIFIER NOTES

Writing one subject and one verb are insufficient for a sentence in an essay. Generally, longer sentences are required. Thus, complements and modifiers are added.

Subject + verb + complement + modifier

COMPLEMENT

Must remember!

A complement is the same as a subject. The difference is it is written after the verb and it answers the questions: who and what.


MODIFIER

Must remember!

A modifier answers the questions: how, where and when.


Must remember!

It is not necessary to write all three modifiers in a sentence. Note the examples given.

• Doctors treat patients every day.

• He lifts weights at the gym.


SENTENCE STRUCTURE PRACTICE

Rearranging the structure

These are typical incorrect sentences written by students of ESL. Rearrange them according to the correct structure.

1. Drives her car she with speed. ______________________________________________________________

2. The supermarket I often go to. ______________________________________________________________

3. She money paid too much. ______________________________________________________________

4. The Chinese new student has with personal some problems. ______________________________________________________________

5. It often difficult is to understand Scottish. ______________________________________________________________

6. The emcee English very fast spoke. ______________________________________________________________

7. Korean or Japanese food you do prefer? ____________________________________________________________

8. Sweet talking he very is at good! ______________________________________________________________

9. Aubrey never I have met. ______________________________________________________________

10. The principal or you are the teacher? ______________________________________________________________


THE SIMPLE TENSES

Many do not realize that 90 to 100 percent of the time, the main tense applied in argumentative and factual essays is either simple present or simple past. The reason is simple. Both tenses serve to explain facts, present or past. Let's review the following factual passages. The first passage is written in the simple present and the second is written in the simple past.


SIMPLE PRESENT

FACEBOOK

Facebook is a free social utility which is popular with many internet users. The utility is opened to almost anyone with internet access. There are no membership and entrance fees needed to open an account. Needless to say, similar to free emails, Facebook attracts millions of users worldwide. There are also no admission limitations based on class, gender and profession. Although there is a minimum age requirement, many are able to bluff their way to opening an account.


SIMPLE PAST

THE SEPTEMBER 11 ATTACKS

The September 11 attacks were a series of organized terrorist attacks launched upon the United States on 11th September 2011. Four airliners were hijacked and flown into buildings in New York state and Washington, D.C. Two of the planes crashed into the twin towers of the World Trade Center in New York City which unfortunately caused them to collapse. The third plane crashed into Pentagon which led to the partial collapse of its west wing. And the fourth plane crashed into a field near Pennsylvania after its passengers tried to overcome the hijackers. The number of casualties was more than two thousand.

So for now, it is safe to apply only either the simple present or the simple past without the need to add the continuous, future and perfect tenses. However, if you have not mastered the simple present and past tenses yet, a brief overview of the tenses is written on the following pages.


SIMPLE PRESENT NOTES

Must remember!


Subject +
Verb (s/es)


Noun / Pronoun / Noun Phrase + Main / Action / Non Action
Facebook + is ...

They + control ...

The angry crowd + marches


Must remember!

Many students of ESL neglect to acknowledge the importance of singular and plural nouns and how they affect the verbs that follow, thus resulting in mistakes in subject-verb agreement.


Examine how the following passage is written:

Facebook is a free social utility which is popular with many internet users. The utility is opened to almost anyone with internet access. There are no membership and entrance fee needed to open an account. Needless to say, similar to free emails, Facebook attracts millions of users worldwide. There are also no admission limitations based on class, gender and profession. Although there is a minimum age requirement, many are able to bluff their way to opening an account.


ACTIVE OR PASSIVE VERB FORMS NOTES

Sentences can be active or passive.


Active Verb Forms

In active sentences, the thing doing the action is the subject and the thing receiving the action is the complement also known as the object. Most sentences are active.

Subject doing action (SDA) + verb (V) + complement receiving action (CRA)


Passive Verb Forms

In passive sentences, the thing receiving the action is the subject and the thing doing the action is optionally included near the end of the sentence. Use the passive form if the thing receiving the action is more important or should be emphasized. The passive form is also applied when the subject doing the action is unknown or when you do not want to mention who is doing the action.

Complement receiving action (CRA) + be + past participle of verb (PP) + by + subject doing action (SDA)


PRACTICE

Write three sentences in the active voice and three sentences in the passive voice.


Active Verb Forms

Subject doing action (SDA) + verb (V) + complement receiving action (CRA)

1. ___________________________________________________________

2. ___________________________________________________________

3. ___________________________________________________________


Passive Verb Forms

Complement receiving action (CRA) + be + past participle of verb (PP) + by + subject doing action (SDA)

1. ___________________________________________________________

2. ___________________________________________________________

3. ___________________________________________________________


SIMPLE PRESENT PRACTICE 1

Write a 150 to 200-word factual passage in the simple present. Choose one of the following topics: Money, Recycling, Effective Communication, Stress, Earth Hour or Globalization.

TOPIC: _____________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________

PRACTICE 2

Most students neglect to apply the correct tense, and they make habitual mistakes. So here's another practice. Write a 150 to 200-word factual passage in the simple present. Choose another topic besides the one chosen in practice 1: Money, Recycling, Effective Communication, Stress, Earth Hour or Globalization.

TOPIC: _____________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________


PRACTICE 3

You should realise a significant improvement by now. Just to make sure, this is the final practice for this topic. Write a 150 to 200-word factual passage in the simple present. Choose another topic besides the ones chosen in practice 1 and 2: Money, Recycling, Effective Communication, Stress, Earth Hour or Globalization.

TOPIC: _____________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________


SIMPLE PAST NOTES

Must remember!


Subject +
Regular (d/ed) /

Irregular verb (take - took)


Terrorists + attacked ... (attack)

The crash + led to ... (lead)


Must remember!

Many tend to forget to change the base form of the verbs to regular and irregular verbs, and this increases the number of unnecessary mistakes.


Examine how the following passage is written:

The September 11 attacks were a series of organised terrorist attacks launched upon the United States on 11th September 2011. Four airliners were hijacked and flown into buildings in New York state and Washington, D.C. Two of the planes crashed into the twin towers of the World Trade Center in New York City which unfortunately caused them to collapse. The third plane crashed into Pentagon which led to the partial collapse of its west wing. And the fourth plane crashed into a field near Pennsylvania after its passengers tried to overcome the hijackers. The number of casualties was more than two thousand.


SIMPLE PAST PRACTICE 1

Write a 150 to 200-word factual passage in the simple past. Choose one of the following topics: A late family member, The typewriter, A celebrity of the 70s, 80s or 90s, A classic movie, A significant event in history or Extinct Animals.

TOPIC: _____________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________


PRACTICE 2

Again, most students of ESL neglect to apply the correct tense, and they make habitual mistakes. So here's another practice. Write a 150 to 200-word factual passage in the simple past. Choose another topic besides the one chosen in Practice 1: A late family member, The typewriter, A celebrity of the 70s, 80s or 90s, A classic movie, A significant event in history or Extinct Animals.

TOPIC: _____________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________


PRACTICE 3

You should realize a significant improvement by now. Just to make sure, this is the final practice for this topic. Write a 150 to 200 word factual passage in the simple past. Choose another topic besides the ones chosen in Practice 1 and 2: A late family member, The typewriter, A celebrity of the 70s, 80s or 90s, A classic movie, A significant event in history or Extinct Animals.

TOPIC: _____________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________


WORDS AND PHRASES TO AVOID

During my years of teaching, I have noticed a number of misused and overused or unnecessary words and phrases typically written by South East Asian students. These words and phrases are often the outcome of direct translation from their first language. The following is a list of them with explanation to why they should be avoided. I use the word 'avoid' because not all are mistakes but when one reads a good essay or an article in a magazine or journal, these words and phrases are rarely used. Once you learn to exclude these words and phrases, expect instant improvement in your writing.

Must remember!

[TABLE OMITTED]


EDITING 1 PRACTICE

The following passage needs editing. Edit them accordingly. Remember to check that each sentence is structured correctly, the right tense is used and words and phrases to be avoided are excluded.


(Continues...)

Excerpted from ESSAY WRITING THE SECRETS REVEALED by Cindy M.. Copyright © 2013 Cindy M. Excerpted by permission of Trafford Publishing.
All rights reserved. No part of this excerpt may be reproduced or reprinted without permission in writing from the publisher.
Excerpts are provided by Dial-A-Book Inc. solely for the personal use of visitors to this web site.

Table of Contents

Contents

Note from the Author, vii,
Acknowledgement, xi,
CHAPTER 1: The Fundamentals, 1,
CHAPTER 2: Understanding Questions & Topics, 37,
CHAPTER 3: How many words?, 43,
CHAPTER 4: The Body Formula, 47,
CHAPTER 5: The Introduction Formula, 71,
CHAPTER 6: The Conclusion Formula, 79,
CHAPTER 7: Practice Makes Perfect, 107,
CHAPTER 8: The Summary Formula, 165,
Questions & Topics on Current Issues, 185,
Answers, 189,

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