When immigration policy and the treatment of Roma collide in international relations there are surprising consequences which are revelatory of the underlying tensions between internal and external policies in the European Union. This book examines the relationship of citizenship, ethnicity and international relations and how these three aspects of the State, its people and its neighbours relate to one another. It studies the wide issue of international relations, citizenship and minority discrimination through the lens of the case study of European Roma who seek refugee status in Canada on account of their persecution in Europe. The volume assesses the relationships among citizenship, state protection and persecution and minority status, and how they can intersect with and destabilize foreign affairs. The central background to the book is the European treatment of Roma, their linkages with visa and asylum policies and their human rights repercussions . The various contributions reveal how modern liberal democracies can find themselves in contradictory positions concerning their citizens - when these are looking for protection abroad - and foreigners - in search of international protection - as a consequence of visa and pre-border surveillance policies and practices.
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About the Author
Didier Bigo is Professor of International Relations (and Maître de conférences des universités) at Sciences-Po Paris, France, and Researcher at CERI/FNSP. Bigo is also Professor at Kings College London, UK.
Sergio Carrera is Senior Research Fellow and Head of the Justice and Home Affairs Programme at the Centre for European Policy Studies (CEPS), Belgium.
Elspeth Guild is a Jean-Monnet Professor of European migration law at the Radboud University Nijmegen (The Netherlands). She is also Senior Research Fellow at the Centre for European Policy Studies in Brussels and a partner at the London law firm Kingsley Napley. She is a Visiting Professor at the LSE London and teaches in the Department of War Studies at Kings College London.
Elspeth Guild, Sergio Carrera, Didier Bigo, Judit Tóth, Claude Cahn, Maria Koblanck, Alejandro Eggenschwiler, Mark B. Salter, Can E. Mutlu Marina Caparini, Annalisa Meloni, Katharine Rozmus, Raül Hernández i Sagera, Leonhard den Hertog, Frederica Infantino.
Table of Contents
Contents: Introduction. International relations, citizenship and minority discrimination: setting the scene, Elspeth Guild and Sergio Carrera; When Montesquieu goes transnational: the Roma as an excuse, visas as preventive logic, judges as sites of resistance, Didier Bigo; Section 1 Roma, the European Union and International Relations: Czech and Hungarian Roma exodus to Canada: how to distinguish between unbearable destitution and unbearable persecution, Judit Tóth; Roma and racial discrimination: the jurisprudence of the European Court of Human Rights, Claude Cahn; Legal modernities - conceptual transformations around the management of human mobility in international relations, Maria Koblanck. Section 2 The EU-Canada Visa and Roma 2009 Affair: The Canada-Czech Republic visa affair: a test for visa reciprocity and fundamental rights in the European Union, Alejandro Eggenschwiler; Asymmetric borders: the Canada-Czech Republic ‘visa war’ and the question of rights, Mark B. Salter and Can E. Mutlu; State protection of the Czech Roma and the Canadian refugee system, Marina Caparini. Section 3 The Visa and Surveillance Logics: Policing at a Distance: EU visa and border control policies: what roles for security and reciprocity?, Annalisa Meloni; The US visa waiver program and the non-inclusion of all EU member states against the EU principles of solidarity and reciprocity, Katharine Rozmus; Reframing the EU visa cooperation with third countries: policy convergence in the visa liberalization process in Eastern Europe, Raül Hernández i Sagera; Fundamental rights and the extra-territorialization of EU border policy: a contradiction in terms?, Leonhard den Hertog; Bordering at the window: the allocation of Schengen visa at the Italian Embassy and Consulate in Morocco, Frederica Infantino; Bibliography; Index.