ISBN-10:
0134175395
ISBN-13:
9780134175393
Pub. Date:
11/12/2015
Publisher:
Addison-Wesley
Foundations of Modern Networking: SDN, NFV, QoE, IoT, and Cloud / Edition 1

Foundations of Modern Networking: SDN, NFV, QoE, IoT, and Cloud / Edition 1

by William Stallings

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Overview

Foundations of Modern Networking: SDN, NFV, QoE, IoT, and Cloud / Edition 1

Foundations of Modern Networking is a comprehensive, unified survey of modern networking technology and applications for today’s professionals, managers, and students. Dr. William Stallings offers clear and well-organized coverage of five key technologies that are transforming networks: Software-Defined Networks (SDN), Network Functions Virtualization (NFV), Quality of Experience (QoE), the Internet of Things (IoT), and cloudbased services.

Dr. Stallings reviews current network ecosystems and the challenges they face–from Big Data and mobility to security and complexity. Next, he offers complete, self-contained coverage of each new set of technologies: how they work, how they are architected, and how they can be applied to solve real problems. Dr. Stallings presents a chapter-length analysis of emerging security issues in modern networks. He concludes with an up-to date discussion of networking careers, including important recent changes in roles and skill requirements.

Coverage:

  • Elements of the modern networking ecosystem: technologies, architecture, services, and applications
  • Evolving requirements of current network environments
  • SDN: concepts, rationale, applications, and standards across data, control, and application planes
  • OpenFlow, OpenDaylight, and other key SDN technologies
  • Network functions virtualization: concepts, technology, applications, and software defined infrastructure
  • Ensuring customer Quality of Experience (QoE) with interactive video and multimedia network traffic
  • Cloud networking: services, deployment models, architecture, and linkages to SDN and NFV
  • IoT and fog computing in depth: key components of IoT-enabled devices, model architectures, and example implementations
  • Securing SDN, NFV, cloud, and IoT environments
  • Career preparation and ongoing education for tomorrow’s networking careers

Key Features:

  • Strong coverage of unifying principles and practical techniques
  • More than a hundred figures that clarify key concepts
  • Web support at williamstallings.com/Network/
  • QR codes throughout, linking to the website and other resources
  • Keyword/acronym lists, recommended readings, and glossary
  • Margin note definitions of key words throughout the text

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780134175393
Publisher: Addison-Wesley
Publication date: 11/12/2015
Edition description: New Edition
Pages: 544
Sales rank: 638,320
Product dimensions: 7.00(w) x 9.00(h) x 1.30(d)

About the Author

Dr. William Stallings has made a unique contribution to understanding the broad sweep of technical developments in computer security, computer networking, and computer architecture. He has authored 18 textbooks, and, counting revised editions, a total of 70 books on various aspects of these subjects. His writings have appeared in numerous ACM and IEEE publications, including the Proceedings of the IEEE and ACM Computing Reviews. He has 13 times received the award for the best computer science textbook of the year from the Text and Academic Authors Association.

In over 30 years in the field, he has been a technical contributor, technical manager, and an executive with several high-technology firms. He has designed and implemented both TCP/IP-based and OSI-based protocol suites on a variety of computers and operating systems, ranging from microcomputers to mainframes. Currently, he is an independent consultant whose clients have included computer and networking manufacturers and customers, software development firms, and leading-edge government research institutions.

He created and maintains the Computer Science Student Resource Site at ComputerScie nceStudent.com/. This site provides documents and links on a variety of subjects of general interest to computer science students (and professionals). He is a member of the editorial board of Cryptologia, a scholarly journal devoted to all aspects of cryptology.

Dr. Stallings holds a Ph.D. from M.I.T. in Computer Science and a B.S. from Notre Dame in electrical engineering.

Table of Contents

Preface xxi

PART I MODERN NETWORKING 3

Chapter 1: Elements of Modern Networking 4

1.1 The Networking Ecosystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

1.2 Example Network Architectures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

A Global Network Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

A Typical Network Hierarchy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

1.3 Ethernet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

Applications of Ethernet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

Ethernet Data Rates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

1.4 Wi-Fi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

Applications of Wi-Fi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

Wi-Fi Data Rates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

1.5 4G/5G Cellular . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

First Generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

Second Generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

Third Generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

Fourth Generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

Fifth Generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

1.6 Cloud Computing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

Cloud Computing Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26

The Benefits of Cloud Computing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

Cloud Networking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28

Cloud Storage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28

1.7 Internet of Things. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28

Things on the Internet of Things . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28

Evolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

Layers of the Internet of Things . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

1.8 Network Convergence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

1.9 Unified Communications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33

1.10 Key Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37

1.11 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37

Chapter 2: Requirements and Technology 38

2.1 Types of Network and Internet Traffic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39

Elastic Traffic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39

Inelastic Traffic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40

Real-Time Traffic Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43

2.2 Demand: Big Data, Cloud Computing, and Mobile Traffic . . . . . . 45

Big Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45

Cloud Computing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48

Mobile Traffic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51

2.3 Requirements: QoS and QoE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53

Quality of Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53

Quality of Experience . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54

2.4 Routing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55

Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55

Packet Forwarding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56

Routing Protocols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57

Elements of a Router . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59

2.5 Congestion Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60

Effects of Congestion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60

Congestion Control Techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64

2.6 SDN and NFV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67

Software-Defined Networking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67

Network Functions Virtualization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69

2.7 Modern Networking Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71

2.8 Key Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72

2.9 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73

PART II SOFTWARE DEFINED NETWORKS 75

Chapter 3: SDN: Background and Motivation 76

3.1 Evolving Network Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77

Demand Is Increasing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77

Supply Is Increasing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77

Traffic Patterns Are More Complex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78

Traditional Network Architectures are Inadequate . . . . . . . . . 79

3.2 The SDN Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80

Requirements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80

SDN Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81

Characteristics of Software-Defined Networking . . . . . . . . . . 85

3.3 SDN- and NFV-Related Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85

Standards-Developing Organizations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87

Industry Consortia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89

Open Development Initiatives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89

3.4 Key Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91

3.5 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91

Chapter 4: SDN Data Plane and OpenFlow 92

4.1 SDN Data Plane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93

Data Plane Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93

Data Plane Protocols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95

4.2 OpenFlow Logical Network Device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95

Flow Table Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98

Flow Table Pipeline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102

The Use of Multiple Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106

Group Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107

4.3 OpenFlow Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109

4.4 Key Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111

Chapter 5: SDN Control Plane 112

5.1 SDN Control Plane Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113

Control Plane Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113

Southbound Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116

Northbound Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117

Routing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119

5.2 ITU-T Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120

5.3 OpenDaylight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122

OpenDaylight Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122

OpenDaylight Helium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124

5.4 REST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128

REST Constraints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128

Example REST API . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130

5.5 Cooperation and Coordination Among Controllers . . . . . . . . 133

Centralized Versus Distributed Controllers . . . . . . . . . . . . 133

High-Availability Clusters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134

Federated SDN Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135

Border Gateway Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136

Routing and QoS Between Domains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137

Using BGP for QoS Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138

IETF SDNi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140

OpenDaylight SNDi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141

5.6 Key Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143

5.7 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143

Chapter 6: SDN Application Plane 144

6.1 SDN Application Plane Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145

Northbound Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146

Network Services Abstraction Layer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146

Network Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147

User Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147

6.2 Network Services Abstraction Layer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147

Abstractions in SDN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147

Frenetic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150

6.3 Traffic Engineering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153

PolicyCop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153

6.4 Measurement and Monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157

6.5 Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157

OpenDaylight DDoS Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157

6.6 Data Center Networking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162

Big Data over SDN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163

Cloud Networking over SDN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164

6.7 Mobility and Wireless . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168

6.8 Information-Centric Networking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168

CCNx . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169

Use of an Abstraction Layer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170

6.9 Key Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173

PART III VIRTUALIATION 175

Chapter 7: Network Functions Virtualization: Concepts and Architecture 176

7.1 Background and Motivation for NFV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177

7.2 Virtual Machines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178

The Virtual Machine Monitor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179

Architectural Approaches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180

Container Virtualization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183

7.3 NFV Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184

Simple Example of the Use of NFV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188

NFV Principles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189

High-Level NFV Framework . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190

7.4 NFV Benefits and Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191

NFV Benefits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191

NFV Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192

7.5 NFV Reference Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193

NFV Management and Orchestration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194

Reference Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195

Implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196

7.6 Key Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197

7.7 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197

Chapter 8: NFV Functionality 198

8.1 NFV Infrastructure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199

Container Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199

Deployment of NFVI Containers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203

Logical Structure of NFVI Domains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204

Compute Domain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205

Hypervisor Domain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208

Infrastructure Network Domain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209

8.2 Virtualized Network Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213

VNF Interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213

VNFC to VNFC Communication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215

VNF Scaling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216

8.3 NFV Management and Orchestration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217

Virtualized Infrastructure Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217

Virtual Network Function Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218

NFV Orchestrator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219

Repositories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219

Element Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220

OSS/BSS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220

8.4 NFV Use Cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221

Architectural Use Cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222

Service-Oriented Use Cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223

8.5 SDN and NFV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225

8.6 Key Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228

8.7 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229

Chapter 9: Network Virtualization 230

9.1 Virtual LANs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231

The Use of Virtual LANs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234

Defining VLANs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235

Communicating VLAN Membership . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236

IEEE 802.1Q VLAN Standard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237

Nested VLANs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239

9.2 OpenFlow VLAN Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240

9.3 Virtual Private Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241

IPsec VPNs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241

MPLS VPNs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243

9.4 Network Virtualization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247

A Simplified Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248

Network Virtualization Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 250

Benefits of Network Virtualization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252

9.5 OpenDaylight’s Virtual Tenant Network. . . . . . . . . . . . . 253

9.6 Software-Defined Infrastructure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257

Software-Defined Storage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259

SDI Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261

9.7 Key Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263

9.8 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263

PART IV DEFINING AND SUPPORTING USER NEEDS 265

Chapter 10: Quality of Service 266

10.1 Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267

10.2 QoS Architectural Framework . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 268

Data Plane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269

Control Plane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271

Management Plane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272

10.3 Integrated Services Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273

ISA Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273

ISA Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 274

ISA Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276

Queuing Discipline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277

10.4 Differentiated Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279

Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281

DiffServ Field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282

DiffServ Configuration and Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 284

Per-Hop Behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286

Default Forwarding PHB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287

10.5 Service Level Agreements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291

10.6 IP Performance Metrics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293

10.7 OpenFlow QoS Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 296

Queue Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 296

Meters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297

10.8 Key Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299

10.9 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299

Chapter 11: QoE: User Quality of Experience 300

11.1 Why QoE? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301

Online Video Content Delivery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302

11.2 Service Failures Due to Inadequate QoE Considerations . . . . . 304

11.3 QoE-Related Standardization Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . 304

11.4 Definition of Quality of Experience . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 305

Definition of Quality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 306

Definition of Experience . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 306

Quality Formation Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 307

Definition of Quality of Experience . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 308

11.5 QoE Strategies in Practice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 308

The QoE/QoS Layered Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 308

Summarizing and Merging the QoE/QoS Layers . . . . . . . . . 310

11.6 Factors Influencing QoE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 311

11.7 Measurements of QoE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 312

Subjective Assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 312

Objective Assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 314

End-User Device Analytics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315

Summarizing the QoE Measurement Methods . . . . . . . . . . 316

11.8 Applications of QoE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 317

11.9 Key Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 319

11.10 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 320

Chapter 12: Network Design Implications of QoS and QoE 322

12.1 Classification of QoE/QoS Mapping Models . . . . . . . . . . 323

Black-Box Media-Based QoS/QoE Mapping Models . . . . . . . 323

Glass-Box Parameter-Based QoS/QoE Mapping Models . . . . . . 325

Gray-Box QoS/QoE Mapping Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 326

Tips for QoS/QoE Mapping Model Selection . . . . . . . . . . . 327

12.2 IP-Oriented Parameter-Based QoS/QoE Mapping Models . . . . . 327

Network Layer QoE/QoS Mapping Models for Video Services . . . . 328

Application Layer QoE/QoS Mapping Models for Video Services . . 328

12.3 Actionable QoE over IP-Based Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . 330

The System-Oriented Actionable QoE Solution . . . . . . . . . . 330

The Service-Oriented Actionable QoE Solution . . . . . . . . . . 331

12.4 QoE Versus QoS Service Monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 332

QoS Monitoring Solutions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 334

QoE Monitoring Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 335

12.5 QoE-Based Network and Service Management . . . . . . . . . 341

QoE-Based Management of VoIP Calls . . . . . . . . . . . . . 341

QoE-Based Host-Centric Vertical Handover . . . . . . . . . . . 341

QoE-Based Network-Centric Vertical Handover . . . . . . . . . 342

12.6 Key Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 344

12.7 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 344

PART V MODERN NETWORK ARCHITECTURE: CLOUDS AND FOG 347

Chapter 13: Cloud Computing 348

13.1 Basic Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 349

13.2 Cloud Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 351

Software as a Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 352

Platform as a Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 353

Infrastructure as a Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 354

Other Cloud Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 355

XaaS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 357

13.3 Cloud Deployment Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 358

Public Cloud . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359

Private Cloud . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359

Community Cloud . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 360

Hybrid Cloud . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 360

13.4 Cloud Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 361

NIST Cloud Computing Reference Architecture . . . . . . . . . . 361

ITU-T Cloud Computing Reference Architecture . . . . . . . . . 365

13.5 SDN and NFV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 368

Service Provider Perspective . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 369

Private Cloud Perspective . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 369

ITU-T Cloud Computing Functional Reference Architecture . . . . . 369

13.6 Key Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 371

Chapter 14: The Internet of Things: Components 372

14.1 The IoT Era Begins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 373

14.2 The Scope of the Internet of Things . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 374

14.3 Components of IoT-Enabled Things . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 377

Sensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 377

Actuators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 380

Microcontrollers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 381

Transceivers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 386

RFID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 387

14.4 Key Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 393

14.5 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 393

Chapter 15: The Internet of Things: Architecture and Implementation 394

15.1 IoT Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 395

ITU-T IoT Reference Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 395

IoT World Forum Reference Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 401

15.2 IoT Implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 409

IoTivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 409

Cisco IoT System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 420

ioBridge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 427

15.3 Key Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 431

15.4 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 431

PART VI RELATED TOPICS 433

Chapter 16: Security 434

16.1 Security Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 435

16.2 SDN Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 436

Threats to SDN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 436

Software-Defined Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 440

16.3 NFV Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 441

Attack Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 441

ETSI Security Perspective . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 444

Security Techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 446

16.4 Cloud Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 446

Security Issues and Concerns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 449

Cloud Security Risks and Countermeasures . . . . . . . . . . . 450

Data Protection in the Cloud . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 452

Cloud Security as a Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 453

Addressing Cloud Computer Security Concerns . . . . . . . . . 456

16.5 IoT Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 458

The Patching Vulnerability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 459

IoT Security and Privacy Requirements Defined by ITU-T . . . . . 459

An IoT Security Framework . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 462

Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 465

16.6 Key Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 465

16.7 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 465

Chapter 17: The Impact of the New Networking on IT Careers 466

17.1 The Changing Role of Network Professionals . . . . . . . . . . 467

Changing Responsibilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 467

Impact on Job Positions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 469

Bottom Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 470

17.2 DevOps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 470

DevOps Fundamentals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 471

The Demand for DevOps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 475

DevOps for Networking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 476

DevOps Network Offerings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 478

Cisco DevNet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 479

Conclusion on the Current State of DevOps . . . . . . . . . . . 479

17.3 Training and Certification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 480

Certification Programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 480

IT Skills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 488

17.4 Online Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 489

17.5 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 491

Appendix A: References 492

Glossary 498

9780134175393, TOC, 10/5/2015

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