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Oxford University Press, USA
Freedom of Speech / Edition 2

Freedom of Speech / Edition 2

by Eric Barendt


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Freedom of Speech / Edition 2

Social and cultural changes have led to free speech claims being made in novel contexts: to challenge the validity of bans on tobacco advertising, to publish 'kiss and tell' stories about celebrities, and to resist attempts to regulate the Internet. In this fully revised and updated new edition of his classic work, Barendt considers the meaning and scope of freedom of speech. How far should free speech and expression clauses go to protect pornography, commercial advertising, and public meetings on the streets? Does this freedom cover desecration of a national flag? Does it include nude dancing?

Eric Barendt discusses the legal protection of free speech in countries including England, the United States (including recent decisions of the United States Supreme Court), Canada, and Germany. He examines the varied approaches of different legal systems and constitutional traditions to balancing free speech and freedom of the press against rights to reputation, privacy, and copyright, and explores case law in light of the philosophical and political arguments for free speech guarantees.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780199225811
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
Publication date: 05/17/2007
Edition description: REV
Pages: 566
Product dimensions: 9.20(w) x 6.20(h) x 1.30(d)

About the Author

Eric Barendt is Goodman Professor of Media Law at University College London.

Table of Contents

A Note on Abbreviations     xxi
Table of United Kingdom Cases     xxiii
Table of United States Cases     xxviii
Table of German Cases     xxxv
Table of Decisions of the European Commission and Court of Human Rights     xxxvii
Cases from Other Jurisdictions     xl
Why Protect Free Speech?     1
Introduction     1
Four Arguments for a Free Speech Principle     6
Arguments concerned with the importance of discovering truth     7
Free speech as an aspect of self-fulfilment     13
The argument from citizen participation in a democracy     18
Suspicion of government     21
Free Speech Interests     23
The speaker's interest in communicating ideas and information     23
The audience interest in receiving ideas and information     25
The bystanders' (or public) interest in speech     27
Freedom of Speech and Other Values     30
Hate speech, dignity, and equality     31
Pluralism and freedom of speech     34
The Constitutional Protection of Free Speech     36
Free Speech in Liberal Legal Systems     39
England     39
Common law     40
The Human Rights Act 1998     42
Free speech cases after the Human Rights Act 1998     45
United States of America     48
Canada     55
Germany     59
The European Human Rights Convention     64
Other Jurisdictions     67
France     67
Italy     70
Australia     71
The Scope of Freedom of Speech     74
Introduction     74
Speech and Conduct     78
General issues     78
Flag desecration     84
Nude dancing and sexually explicit conduct     86
Conclusions     87
Speech and Money     88
General issues     88
Corporate speech     91
Rights Not to Speak     93
Language Rights     98
What Type of Freedom?     100
Preliminary issues     100
Only a narrow liberty?     104
Access to Information     108
Freedom of Speech and Government Subsidies     112
Prior Restraints     117
The Varieties and Vices of Prior Restraints     118
The distinction between prior restraints and penal sanctions      118
The principal features of classic prior restraints     122
Judicial prior restraints     124
Conclusions     128
Theatre, Film, and Video Censorship     129
Official Secrets and Confidential Information     136
Contempt of Court and Permits for Meetings     145
Contempt of court     145
Permits for meetings     148
Private Censorship     151
Political Speech     154
Introduction     154
The Preferred Position of Political Speech     155
Sedition and Related Offences     162
Racist Hate Speech     170
Arguments of principle     170
Hate speech laws     177
Blasphemy and Incitement to Religious Hatred     186
The common law of blasphemy     186
Religious hatred laws and freedom of speech     189
Disclosure of Official Secrets     192
General principles     192
Official secrets laws     195
Libel and Invasion of Privacy     198
Introduction     198
Is Defamation 'Speech'?     199
Balancing Free Speech and Reputation     205
The United States      206
Australia and New Zealand     211
Germany     213
England     219
The European Convention on Human Rights     222
Conclusions on balancing in libel cases     225
Insults and Satire     227
Privacy and Free Speech     230
Introduction     230
Publication of confidential information     232
Revealing personal identity     235
Publication of photographs     237
Presenting the claimant in a false light     240
The privacy of politicians and other public figures     241
Conclusions on balancing in privacy cases     244
Copyright and Other Property Rights     247
Introduction     247
Why is Copyright Immune from Free Speech Scrutiny?     248
Doctrinal arguments     248
Historical arguments     251
Copyright is a property right     253
Free Speech Coverage of Copyright Infringement     254
General arguments for coverage     254
The free speech interests of infringers     256
Deference to copyright legislation     259
Balancing Copyright and Freedom of Speech     260
Trade Mark and Publicity Rights      263
Trade marks and the Gay Olympics case     263
Publicity rights     265
Meetings, Protest, and Public Order     268
Introduction     268
The Right to Assemble and Freedom of Speech     270
Access to Streets and Other Public Fora     273
Theoretical issues     273
Traditional public fora: streets, open spaces, and public halls     276
New public fora for speech and assembly     281
Freedom of speech on private property     286
Conclusions     289
Public Order     290
General principles     290
Inflammatory and offensive speech     295
The problem of the hostile audience     302
Notice and Buffer-Zone Requirements     306
Notice requirements     306
Buffer zones to regulate anti-abortion protest     308
Free Speech and the Judicial Process     312
Introduction     312
Attacks on the Judiciary     316
Prejudice to Legal Proceedings     322
Arguments of principle     323
Legal restrictions on prejudicial publicity     328
Alternatives to contempt of court proceedings     331
The law in the United States     334
Balancing free speech and the administration of justice     336
Open Justice     338
Arguments of principle     338
Access to the courts     342
Televising court proceedings     346
Reporting restrictions     349
Pornography     352
Introduction     352
Is Pornography 'Speech'?     355
Arguments of principle     355
Pornography which falls outside 'speech'     361
Obscenity and the Moral Tone of Society     363
Specific Harms     370
Introduction     370
The character of the harm     371
Sexual crimes     373
Harm to children     374
Harm to women     378
Conclusions     381
Pornography, the Arts, and Learning     381
Pornography and Offensiveness     385
Commercial Speech     392
Introduction     392
What is Commercial Speech?     395
Should Commercial Speech be Covered by Free Speech Clauses?     399
Introduction     399
The interest of consumers in commercial information     401
The public interest in the free flow of commercial information     402
Paternalism     403
Conclusions     404
The Regulation of Advertising     406
General principles     406
Restrictions on professional advertising     409
Disclosure requirements     412
Tobacco Advertising     413
Freedom of Speech in the Media     417
Introduction     417
Press Freedom and Free Speech     419
Three perspectives on press freedom     419
Editorial freedom     425
The Implications of a Distinct Press and Media Freedom     427
Taxation and the media     427
Competition law and the media     429
Press rights of access to information     434
Privilege not to disclose sources of information     435
Whose Right to Press and Media Freedom?     441
Freedom of Speech and Broadcasting     444
Conclusions     449
Freedom of Speech and the Internet     451
Introduction     451
How Should the Internet be Treated?     455
Rejection of the analogy with broadcasting     455
Similar, but not identical, to the press     455
The Internet is not a public forum     456
Pornography on the Internet     458
The application of obscenity laws     458
The protection of children     459
Indecent images of children on the Internet     461
Defamation and the Internet     463
General principles     463
The immunity of Internet service providers     464
Wider defences for individuals?     466
The Problems of Global Communication     468
Introduction     468
The appropriate forum for the regulation of Internet communications     469
Enforcement of judgments     471
Legal and technical solutions to the regulation of global communications     472
Freedom of Speech in Special Contexts     475
Introduction     475
Election Campaigns     476
Limits on expenditure and contributions     476
Other issues     484
Free Speech in Employment     486
Preliminary issues     486
Balancing the interests of employees and employers     489
Speech by members of the armed forces     494
Free Speech in Education     496
Introduction     496
The free speech rights of students and teachers     497
Free speech in universities     500
Free Speech and Prisoners     502
Select Bibliography     507
Index     513

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