Fundamentals Of Imaging, The: From Particles To Galaxies

Fundamentals Of Imaging, The: From Particles To Galaxies

by Michael Mark Woolfson

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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781848166851
Publisher: Imperial College Press
Publication date: 09/12/2011
Pages: 360
Product dimensions: 5.90(w) x 8.90(h) x 0.70(d)

Table of Contents

Preface xi

1 The Human Visual System 1

1.1 The Optical System 1

1.2 The Photoreceptors 4

1.3 The Way that Nerve Cells Operate and Communicate 6

1.4 The Neural Network of the Eye 8

1.5 The Visual Cortex 13

2 The Evolution of the Eye 15

2.1 Plants and Light 16

2.2 Different Forms of Eye 17

2.3 The Evolution of the Vertebrate Eye 20

3 Waves and Image Formation 25

3.1 What is Light? 25

3.2 Huygens' Wavelets 27

3.3 Reflection and Refraction 28

3.4 Stereoscopy 30

3.5 Holography 33

4 Seeing Small Objects 41

4.1 Resolution of the Visual System 41

4.2 A Simple Microscope - the Magnifying Glass 46

4.3 The Compound Microscope 49

4.4 Phase-Contrast Microscopy 55

4.5 Electron Microscopy 59

4.5.1 The transmission electron microscope 63

4.5.2 The scanning electron microscope 64

4.5.3 The scanning transmission electron microscope 66

4.5.4 The scanning tunnelling microscope 67

5 Photography and the Recording of Images 69

5.1 The Origins of the Camera 69

5.2 Recording and Storing Monochrome Images 70

5.2.1 Joseph Nicéphore Niépce 71

5.2.2 Daguerreotypes 72

5.2.3 William Henry Fox Talbot 73

5.2.4 From the wet collodion process to modern film 75

5.3 The Beginning of Colour Photography 77

5.3.1 Louis Ducos du Hauron 77

5.3.2 The Lippmann process 80

5.4 Modern Colour Photography 83

5.4.1 The autochrome process 83

5.4.2 The modern era of colour photography 85

5.5 The Basic Construction of a Camera 86

5.6 Digital Cameras 89

6 Detecting and Imaging with Infrared Radiation 91

6.1 The Radiation from Hot Bodies 91

6.2 The Detection of Infrared Radiation 95

6.2.1 The effectiveness of infrared and heat detectors 95

6.2.2 Thermocouples and thermopiles 98

6.2.3 Bolometers 101

6.2.4 Golay cells 104

6.2.5 Pyroelectric detectors; intruder alarms 105

6.3 Infrared Imaging 107

6.3.1 A night-vision device 107

6.3.2 Thermography: thermal imaging 111

7 . Radar 115

7.1 The Origin of Radar 115

7.2 Determining the Distance 117

7.3 The Basic Requirements of a Radar System 118

7.4 Generators of Radio Frequency Radiation 119

7.4.1 The klystron amplifier 120

7.4.2 The cavity magnetron 121

7.5 Transmitting the Pulses 122

7.5.1 A simple dipole 122

7.5.2 The parabolic reflector 122

7.5.3 Multiple-dipole-array antennae 125

7.5.4 Phased-array radar 129

7.6 Reception and Presentation 132

7.7 Doppler Radar 134

7.7.1 The Doppler effect 134

7.7.2 Pulsed-Doppler radar 136

7.8 Synthetic Aperture Radar 139

7.8.1 A simple illustration of SAR 140

7.8.2 More complex SAR applications 142

7.9 Other Radar Applications 143

7.9.1 Secondary radar 143

7.9.2 Ground penetrating radar 144

8 Imaging the Universe with Visible and Near-Visible Radiation 147

8.1 Optical Telescopes 147

8.2 Refracting Telescopes 148

8.3 Reflecting Telescopes 150

8.4 Infrared Astronomy 155

8.5 Adaptive Optics 158

8.5.1 The Keck telescopes 161

8.5.2 Flexible mirror systems 163

9 Imaging the Universe with Longer Wavelengths 169

9.1 Observations in the Far Infrared 169

9.1.1 COBE results 172

9.2 Radio Telescopes 174

9.2.1 The beginning of radio astronomy 174

9.2.2 Big-dish radio telescopes 177

9.2.3 Radio interferometers 179

9.2.4 Radio telescope images 181

10 Imaging the Universe with Shorter Wavelengths 183

10.1 Some Aspects of Imaging in the Ultraviolet 183

10.1.1 The International Ultraviolet Explorer 184

10.1.2 The Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer 187

10.1.3 The extreme ultraviolet imaging telescope 189

10.2 X-ray Telescopes 191

10.3 γ-ray Telescopes 193

11 Images of the Earth and Planets 201

11.1 Aerial Archaeology 201

11.2 Imaging Earth 206

11.2.1 Global weather 206

11.2.2 Imaging the Earth; environmental science 211

11.2.3 Making maps 214

11.3 Images of Planets 220

12 Images for Entertainment 225

12.1 Persistence of Vision 225

12.2 Cinematography 226

12.2.1 Some early devices for moving images 227

12.2.2 The beginning of cinematography 230

12.2.3 The introduction of colour 234

12.3 Television 239

12.3.1 Mechanical scanning systems 239

12.3.2 Electronic scanning systems 241

12.3.3 Television viewing with cathode ray tubes 243

12.3.4 Television viewing with liquid crystal displays 247

12.3.5 Television viewing with plasma displays 250

12.3.6 Three dimensional television 252

13 Detection and Imaging with Sound and Vibrations 255

13.1 The Nature of Sound Waves 255

13.2 Animal Echolocation 256

13.3 The Origin of Echolocation Devices 260

13.4 Sonar 261

13.5 Imaging the Interior of the Earth 264

13.5.1 Types of seismic wave 265

13.5.2 The passage of body waves through the Earth 266

13.5.3 Interpretation of seismic wave data 272

13.5.4 Geoprospecting with sound 274

14 Medical Imaging 275

14.1 The Discovery of X-rays 275

14.2 X-ray Generators 277

14.3 Recording a Radiographic Image 280

14.4 Computed Tomography - CT Scans 282

14.5 Magnetic Resonance Imaging 287

14.6 Imaging with Ultrasound 293

14.6.1 The generation and detection of ultrasound 294

14.6.2 Medical ultrasonic procedures 297

15 Images of Atoms 303

15.1 The Nature of Crystals 303

15.1.1 The shapes of crystals 304

15.1.2 The arrangement of atoms in crystals 305

15.2 The Phenomenon of Diffraction 307

15.2.1 A one-dimensional diffraction grating 307

15.2.2 A two-dimensional diffraction grating 309

15.3 The Beginning of X-ray Crystallography 310

15.4 X-rays for Diffraction Experiments 313

15.5 The Phase Problem in Crystallography 318

15.6 Determining Crystal Structures; Electron-density Images 322

15.7 The Scanning Tunnelling Microscope 325

16 Images of Particles 333

16.1 The Structure of an Atom 334

16.2 Atom-smashing Machines 338

16.3 Many More Particles 340

16.4 Direct Imaging of Particle Tracks 344

16.4.1 Photographic plates 344

16.4.2 The Wilson cloud chamber 345

16.4.3 The bubble chamber 347

Index 351

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