Ground Engineering - Principles and Practices for Underground Coal Mining

Ground Engineering - Principles and Practices for Underground Coal Mining

by J.M. Galvin

Hardcover(1st ed. 2016)

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Overview

This book teaches readers ground engineering principles and related mining and risk management practices associated with underground coal mining. It establishes the basic elements of risk management and the fundamental principles of ground behaviour and then applies these to the essential building blocks of any underground coal mining system, comprising excavations, pillars, and interactions between workings.

Readers will also learn about types of ground support and reinforcement systems and their operating mechanisms. These elements provide the platform whereby the principles can be applied to mining practice and risk management, directed primarily to bord and pillar mining, pillar extraction, longwall mining, sub-surface and surface subsidence, and operational hazards.

The text concludes by presenting the framework of risk-based ground control management systems for achieving safe workplaces and efficient mining operations. In addition, a comprehensive reference list provides additional sources of information on the subject. Throughout, a large variety of examples show good and bad mining situations in order to demonstrate the application, or absence, of the established principles in practice.

Written by an expert in underground coal mining and risk management, this book will help students and practitioners gain a deep understanding of the basic principles behind designing and conducting mining operations that are safe, efficient, and economically viable.

  • Provides a comprehensive coverage of ground engineering principles within a risk management framework
  • Features a large variety of examples that show good and poor mining situations in order to demonstrate the application of the established principles in practice
  • Ideal for students and practitioners

  • About the author

    Emeritus Professor Jim Galvin has a relatively unique combination of industrial, research and academic experience in the mining industry that spans specialist research and applied knowledge in ground engineering, mine management and risk management. His career encompasses directing ground engineering research groups in South Africa and Australia; practical mining experience, including active participation in the mines rescue service and responsibility for the design, operation, and management of large underground coal mines and for the consequences of loss of ground control as a mine manager; appointments as Professor and Head of the School of Mining Engineering at the University of New South Wales; and safety advisor to a number of Boards of Directors of organisations associated with mining.


    Awards

    Winner of the ACARP Excellence Research Award 2016.

    The Australian Coal Industry's Research Program selects recipients to receive ACARP Research and Industry Excellence Awards every two years. The recipients are selected on the recommendation of technical committees. They are honored for achievement of a considerable advance in an area of importance to the Australian coal mining industry. An important criterion is the likelihood of the results from the project being applied in mines.


    Winner of the Merv Harris Awardfrom the Mine Managers Association of Australia.

    The Merv Harris Award is named for Merv Harris who donated money to be invested for a continuing award in 1988. With the award, the Mine Managers Association of Australia honors members of the Association who demonstrate technical achievement in the Australian Coal Mining Industry. The first award was granted in 1990, since then, only two people have received this honor.


    The book has received the following awards…. AGS (Australian Geomechanics Society) congratulates Dr Galvin for these awards

    Product Details

    ISBN-13: 9783319250038
    Publisher: Springer International Publishing
    Publication date: 02/03/2016
    Edition description: 1st ed. 2016
    Pages: 684
    Product dimensions: 7.10(w) x 10.10(h) x 1.60(d)

    About the Author

    Emeritus Professor Jim Galvin has a relatively unique combination of industrial, research and academic experience in the mining industry that spans specialist research and applied knowledge in ground engineering, mine management and risk management. His career encompasses directing ground engineering research groups in South Africa and Australia; practical mining experience, including active participation in the mines rescue service and responsibility for the design, operation, and management of large underground coal mines and for the consequences of loss of ground control as a mine manager; appointments as Professor and Head of the School of Mining Engineering at the University of New South Wales; and safety advisor to a number of Boards of Directors of organisations associated with mining.

    Table of Contents

    1. SCOPE OF GROUND ENGINEERING

    1.1. What is Ground Engineering

    1.2. Peculiarities of Ground Engineering

    1.3. State of the Art

    1.4. Risk Management

    1.5. The Impact of Risk Management and Technology

    2. FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES FOR GROUND ENGINEERING

    2.1. Introduction

    2.2. Characteristics of Underground Coal Mining

    2.2.1. Geological Setting

    2.2.2. Mine Access

    2.2.3. Mine Roadways

    2.2.4. Mining Methods

    2.3. Rock Mass Fabric

    2.4. Physical Parameters

    2.5. Material Properties

    2.5.1. Load-Displacement

    2.5.2. Stress-Strain

    2.5.3. Stiffness

    2.5.4. Strength

    2.5.5. Stored Energy and Seismicity

    2.5.6. Poisson’s Effect

    2.5.7. Cohesion and Friction on a Fracture Surface

    2.5.8. Post-peak Strength Behaviour

    2.6. Rock Mechanics

    2.6.1. Specifying Stresses within Rock

    2.6.2. Strength of Rock

    2.6.3. Equivalent Modulus of Strata

    2.6.4. Failure Criteria

    2.6.5. Effective Stress

    2.6.6. Primitive, Induced, Resultant and Field Stress

    2.6.7. Field Stress in Coal

    2.6.8. Field Shear Strength

    2.6.9. Reduction in Confinement

    2.6.10. Rock Mass Classification Systems

    2.6.11. Failure Mode

    2.6.12. Ground Response Curve

    2.7. Analysis Techniques

    2.7.1. Empirical Methods

    2.7.2. Analytical Meth

    ods

    2.7.

    3. Numerical Methods

    2.7.4. Safety Factor

    2.7.5. Statistical and Probabilistic Analysis

    2.8. Statics

    2.8.1. Introduction

    2.8.2. Basic Definitions and Principles

    2.8.3. Transversely Loaded Beams

    2.8.4. Axially Loaded Columns

    2.8.5. Eccentrically Loaded Columns

    2.8.6. Beam-Columns Subjected to Simultaneous Axial and Transverse Loading

    2.8.7. Thin Plate Subjected to Axial and Transverse Load

    2.8.8. Linear Arch Theory

    2.8.9. Classical Beam Theory Applications in Ground Engineering

    3. EXCAVATION MECHANICS

    3.1. Introduction

    3.2. Excavation Response

    3.3. Caving Mechanics

    3.3.1. Basic Principles

    3.3.2. Strong Massive Strata

    3.3.3. Span Design

    3.4. Elevated Horizontal Stress

    3.5. Shallow Mining

    3.5.1. Principles

    3.5.2. Practice

    4. PILLAR SYSTEMS

    4.1. Introduction

    4.2. Functional, Risk Based Approach To Pillar Design

    4.3. Pillar Working Stress

    4.3.1. Pillar System Stiffness

    4.3.2. Regular Bord and Pillar Layouts

    4.3.3. Irregular Bord and Pillar Layouts

    4.4. Pillar System Strength

    4.4.1. Defining Pillar Strength and Failure

    4.4.2. Geological Factors

    4.4.3. Geometri

    c Facto

    rs

    4.4.4.

    Scale F

    actors

    4.4.5.

    Determi

    ning

    Pillar

    Streng

    th

    4

    .5. Quantifying Desig

    n Risk

    4.5.1.

    Probabi

    listic

    Stability

    Prediction

    4.5.2. Probabilistic Design

    4.5.3. Summary Points

    4.6. Pillar Failure Modes

    4.6.1. Types

    4.6.2. Conventional Failure Mode

    4.6.3. Dynamic Confined Core Failure

    4.7. The Complexity of Pillar Behaviour

    4.8. Pillar Design Considerations

    4.8.1. Empirical Data Regime

    4.8.2. Stiff Superincumbent Strata

    4.8.3. Behaviour

    4.8.4. Seam Specific Strength

    4.8.5. Ground Response Curve

    4.8.6. Correlations Between Safety Factor and Performance Probability

    4.8.7. UNSW Pillar Design Methodology

    4.8.8. Diamond Shaped Pillars

    4.8.9. Irregular Pillar Shapes

    4.8.10. Highwall Mining

    5. INTERACTION BETWEEN WORKINGS

    5.1. Introduction

    5.2. Workings in the Same Seam

    5.2.1. Framework

    5.2.2. Pillar Systems

    5.2.3. Roadways

    5.2.4. Panels

    5.2.5. Interaction Between Roadways and Excavations

    5.3. Multiseam Workings

    5.3.1. Framework

    5.3.2. Pillar Systems

    5.3.3. Extraction Panels

    6. SUPPORT AND REINFORCEMENT SYSTEMS

    6.1. Introduction

    6.2.

    Primary Chara

    cteristics

    6.3. Stand

    ing Support

    6.3.1. Pr

    ops

    6.3

    .2. Timber Cho

    cks

    6.3.3. Cement

    itious Chocks

    6.3.4. Steel Arches and Sets

    6.3.

    5. Pillars

    6.4. Tend

    on Support and

    Reinforcement

    6.4.1.

    Scope

    6.4.2. Functio

    ns of Tendons

    6.

    4.3. Anchorage of Tendons

    6.4.4. Practical Considerations

    6.5. Surface Restraint Systems

    6.5.1. Scope

    6.5.2. Cross Supports

    6.5.3. Screens

    6.5.4. Membranes and Liners

    6.6. Spiling

    6.7. Strata Binders

    6.8. Void Fillers

    7. GROUND SUPPORT DESIGN

    7.1. Introduction

    7.2. Roof Control

    7.2.1. Failure Modes

    7.2.2. Generic Design Approaches

    7.3. Theoretical Roof Support Design Aspects

    7.3.1. Classical Beam Theory

    7.3.2. Contribution of Long Central Tendons

    7.3.3. UCS – E Correlations

    7.3.4. Rock Mass Classification Systems

    7.3.5. Reinforcement Density Indices

    7.3.6. Numerical Modelling

    7.4. Summary Conclusions

    7.5. Operational Roof Support Design Aspects

    7.5.1. Roadway Span

    7.5.2. Timing of Installation

    7.5.3. Role and Timing of Centre Tendons

    7.5.4. Effectiveness of Pretension

    7.5.5. Stress Relief

    7.5.6. Coal Roof
    7.5.7. Floor

    7.5.8. Monitoring at Height

    7.5.

    9. Mining Through Cro

    ss Measures

    7.6. Rib Control

    7.6.1.

    Introduction

    7.6.2. Risk Profile <

    7.6.3. Rib Comp

    osition

    7.6.4.

    Rib Behaviour

    7.6.5. Design Consid

    erations

    7.6.6. Suppor

    t Hardware Considerations

    7.6.7. Op

    erational Considerati

    ons

    7.6.8. Sum

    mary Conclusions

    8. PILL

    AR EXTRACTION

    8.1. Introduction

    8

    .2. Attributes of Pillar Extraction

    8.3. Basic Pillar Extraction Techniques

    8.3.1. Design and Support Terminology

    8.3.2. Total Extraction Methods

    8.3.3. Partial Extraction Methods

    8.4. Ground Control Considerations

    8.4.1. Introduction

    8.4.2. Regional Stability

    8.4.3. Panel Stability

    8.4.4. Workplace Stability

    8.5. Operating Discipline <

    9. LONGWALL MINING

    9.1. Introduction

    9.2. Panel Layout

    9.2.1. Basic Longwall Mining Methods

    9.2.2. Gateroad Direction and Layout

    9.2.3. Chain Pillar Life Cycle

    9.2.4. Chain Pillar Design

    9.2.5. Chain Pillar/Gateroad Behaviour

    9.3. Longwall Powered Supports

    9.3.1. Development

    9.3.2. Basic Functions

    9.3.3. Static and Kinematic Characteristics

    9.4. Operational Variables
    9.4.1. Cutting Technique and Support Configuration

    9.4.2. Powered Support System Maintenanc

    e

    9.4.3. Face Operati

    ng Practices <

    9.5. Longwall Face Str

    ata Control

    9.

    5.1. Introduction

    9.5

    .2. Coal Face

    9

    .5.3. Floor

    9.5.4. Im

    medi

    ate and Upper Roof Strata <

    9.6. Installation Roadways

    9.7. Pre-driven R

    oadways Within A Longwall Block

    9.7.1. Generic Types and Mining Practices

    9.7.2. Pre-Driven Longwall R

    ecovery Roadways

    9.8.

    Longwall Face Recove

    ry

    9.9. Other Longwal

    l Variants
    9.9.1.

    Longwall Top Coal Caving

    9.9.

    2. Miniwall

    10. OVERBURDEN SUBSIDENCE

    10.1. Introduction

    10.2. Generic Behaviours

    10.3. Sub-Surface Subsidence

    10.3.1. Fundamentals

    10.3.2. Subsurface Effects

    10.3.3. Impacts

    10.4. Surface Subsidence

    10.4.1. Introduction

    10.4.2. Sinkhole and Plug Subsidence

    10.4.3. Classical Subsidence Behaviour

    10.4.4. Site-Centric Subsidence

    10.4.5. Prediction of Classical Surface Subsidence

    10.4.6. Prediction of Site-centric Subsidence

    10.4.7. Surface Subsidence Impacts

    10.4.8. Mitigation and Remediation

    11. OPERATIONAL HAZARDS

    11.1. Introduction

    11.2. Windblast

    11.2.1. Introduction

    11.2.2. Behaviour Features

    11.2.3. Risk Management of Windblasts
    11.3. Feather Edging

    11.4. Top Coaling an

    d Bottom Coaling

    11.5. Dippi

    ng Workings

    11.6. Inrush

    11.6.1. Def

    inition

    11.6.2. Criti

    cal Factors and Considerations

    11.7. Flooded Workings

    11.8. Bumps and Pressure Bur

    sts

    11.8.1

    . Definitio

    ns

    11.8.2. Pressure Burst Failure Mechanisms

    11.8.3. Sei

    smic Events Associated with Rock Failure

    11.8.4. Seismic Events Associated with Discontinuities

    11.8.5. Risk Management of Pressure

    Bursts

    11.9. Gas Outbursts

    11.9.1. Definition

    11.9.2. Behaviour Features

    11.9.3. Risk Management

    of Outbursts

    11.10. Mining Through Faults a

    nd Dykes

    11.11. Frictional Ignition Involving Rock

    11.12. Backfilling of Bord and Pillar Workings

    11.13. Roof Falls

    11.13.1. Effect on Pillar Strength

    11.13.2. Roof Fall Recovery

    11.14. Experimental Panels

    11.15. Alternative Rock Bolt Applications

    11.16. Convergence Zones and Paleochannels

    12. MANAGING RISK IN GROUND ENGINEERING

    12.1. Introduction

    12.2. Ground Control Management Plan

    12.2.1. Basis for a Ground Control Management Plan

    12.2.2. Structure of a Ground Control Management Plan

    12.2.3. Competencies

    12.3. Risk Analysis Foundations

    12.4. Types of Risk Assessment

    12.5. Risk Assessment Process

    12.5.1. Context

    12.5.2. Team Comp

    osition <12.5.3. Controls

    12.5.4. O

    ther Process Co

    nsiderations

    12.6. Implementation <

    12.6.1. Hazard Plans

    1

    2.6.2. Trigger Action Response Plan

    s

    12.6.3. Review

    <12.6.4. Change Management

    12.6.5. O

    ther Implementation Considerations

    12.6.6. Determining Acceptable Levels of Risk

    12.6.7. Reviewing

    A Risk Assessment

    12.7. Moni

    toring

    12.7.1. Purpose

    12.7.2. Monitoring Strategy

    12.7.3. Sens

    ory Monitoring

    12.7.4. Monitoring w

    ith Instrumentation

    12.7.5. Displac

    ement Monitoring Instrumenta

    tion

    12.7.6. Stress Monitori

    ng Instrumentation

    12.7.7. O

    ther Instrumentation

    12.7.8. Field Monitoring Prac

    tices

    12.8. Concluding Remarks

    GLOSSARY OF TERMS

    GLOSSARY OF SYMBOLS

    SYMBOLS IN METRIC SYSTEM

    Appendices

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