Invertebrates in Hot and Cold Arid Environments

Invertebrates in Hot and Cold Arid Environments

by Lauritz Somme

Paperback(Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1995)

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Overview

A comparison of the adaptations made by invertebrates in polar deserts with those of temperate and subtropical deserts. These regions represent some of the most hostile environments on earth, demanding an array of strategies for survival. Polar species are well adapted to the cold and have to cope with arid conditions due to low precipitation and lack of liquid water during the winter. Similarly, temperate desert invertebrates have adapted to dry conditions and are also exposed to low winter temperatures. Terrestrial arthropods maintain their water-balance through behavioural and physiological adaptations. Tardigrades and nematodes are remarkable in their ability to shed all their water before entering a state of anhydrobiosis only to be revived when moisture once again becomes available.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9783642795855
Publisher: Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Publication date: 12/14/2011
Series: Adaptations of Desert Organisms
Edition description: Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1995
Pages: 275
Product dimensions: 6.10(w) x 9.25(h) x 0.02(d)

Table of Contents

1 The Climate of Arid Environments.- 1.1 Subtropical and Temperate Deserts.- 1.1.1 Definitions.- 1.1.2 The Distribution of Deserts.- 1.1.3 Microclimate.- 1.2 Polar Deserts.- 1.2.1 The Arctic.- 1.2.2 The Antarctic.- 1.2.3 Microclimate.- 1.3 The Limitation of Water in Antarctic Terrestrial Ecosystems.- 1.3.1 Latitudinal Variations.- 1.3.2 Microclimatic Variations.- 1.4 Conclusions.- 2 The Fauna of Hot and Cold Arid Deserts.- 2.1 The Diversity of Hot Desert Invertebrates.- 2.1.1 Introduction.- 2.1.2 Soil Fauna: Microarthropods and Nematodes.- 2.1.3 Ants and Termites.- 2.1.4 Herbivores.- 2.1.4 Detritivorous Macroarthropods.- 2.1.6 Necrophagous and Coprophagous Arthropods.- 2.1.7 Predaceous Arthropods.- 2.2 The Fauna of Polar Regions.- 2.2.1 Introduction.- 2.2.2 Nematodes.- 2.2.3 Tardigrades.- 2.2.4 Rotifers.- 2.2.5 Other Invertebrates.- 2.2.6 Terrestrial Arthropods.- 2.3 Comparison of Hot and Cold Arid Environments.- 3 Tolerance to Arid Conditions in Terrestrial Arthropods.- 3.1 Microarthropods.- 3.1.1 Alpine Species.- 3.1.2 Polar Species.- 3.2 Coleoptera.- 3.2.1 Alpine Species.- 3.2.2 Polar Species.- 3.2.3 Tropical and Temperate Lowland Species.- 3.3 Other Terrestrial Arthropods.- 3.3.1 From Lowland Deserts.- 3.3.2 Alpine Millipedes.- 3.4 Conclusions.- 4 The Physiology of Tolerance to Desiccation.- 4.1 Introduction.- 4.2 Evaporative Water Losses.- 4.2.1 Beetles.- 4.2.2 Scorpions.- 4.3 The Cuticula of Terrestrial Arthropods.- 4.3.1 Structure.- 4.3.2 Restriction of Water Loss.- 4.3.3 Cuticular Lipids.- 4.3.4 Desert Arthropods.- 4.3.5 Evaporative Cooling.- 4.4 Water Absorption.- 4.4.1 The Hindgut of Insects.- 4.4.2 The Cryptonephridial System.- 4.4.3 Water Absorption in Other Terrestrial Arthropods.- 4.5 Osmoregulation.- 4.5.1 Occurrence in Different Taxa.- 4.5.2 Desert Tenebrionids.- 4.5.3 Alpine Beetles.- 4.6 Conclusions.- 5 Anhydrobiosis in Terrestrial Invertebrates.- 5.1 Introduction.- 5.2 Nematodes.- 5.2.1 Tolerance to Desiccation.- 5.2.2 Rates of Dehydration.- 5.2.3 Nematodes from Hot Deserts.- 5.2.4 Antarctic Nematodes.- 5.2.5 Accumulation of Trehalose.- 5.3 Tardigrades.- 5.3.1 Tun Formation.- 5.3.2 Ecological Implications.- 5.3.3 Accumulation of Trehalose.- 5.3.4 Recovery from Anhydrobiosis.- 5.4 Rotifers.- 5.5 Terrestrial Arthropods.- 5.5.1 Collembola.- 5.5.2 Chironomid Midges.- 5.6 Biochemical Aspects of Anhydrobiosis.- 5.7 Conclusions.- 6 Behavioural Adaptations.- 6.1 Arthropods from Hot Deserts.- 6.1.1 Introduction.- 6.1.2 Burrowing.- 6.1.3 Circadian and Seasonal Rhythms.- 6.1.4 Thermoregulation.- 6.2 Polar and Alpine Terrestrial Arthropods.- 6.2.1 Introduction.- 6.2.2 Mating and Oviposition.- 6.2.3 Microarthropods.- 6.2.4 Behavioural Thermoregulation.- 6.2.5 Avoidance of Heat and Cold by Alpine Tropical Arthropods.- 7 Phenological Adaptations.- 7.1 Life Cycles.- 7.1.1 Hot Desert Invertebrates.- 7.1.2 Polar Species.- 7.1.3 Alpine Species.- 7.1.4 Conclusions.- 7.2 Diapause and Quiescence.- 7.2.1 Introduction.- 7.2.2 Principle Features of Diapause.- 7.2.3 Dormancy in Tropical Insects.- 7.2.4 Dormancy in Polar Species.- 7.2.5 Conclusions.- 8 Water Balance During Overwintering.- 8.1 Introduction.- 8.2 Choice of Overwintering Sites.- 8.2.1 Environmental Factors.- 8.2.2 Cues for Overwintering.- 8.2.3 Anaerobiosis.- 8.3 Moisture Content of Overwintering Sites.- 8.3.1 Lack of Fluid Water.- 8.3.2 Water Vapour Pressure in Frozen Habitats.- 8.3.3 Longevity and Saturation Deficit.- 8.4 Inoculative Freezing.- 8.4.1 Contact with Ice and Inoculation.- 8.4.2 Protection Against Inoculative Freezing.- 8.5 The Effect of Dehydration on Cold Hardiness.- 8.6 Conclusions.- 9 Cold Hardiness in Terrestrial Arthropods.- 9.1 Introduction.- 9.2 Concepts of Cold Hardiness.- 9.2.1 Definition of Important Concepts.- 9.3 Freeze Susceptible Species.- 9.3.1 The Importance of Supercooling.- 9.3.2 Supercooling Capacity in Microarthropods.- 9.3.3 Removal of Ice-Nucleating Agents.- 9.3.4 Seasonal Changes.- 9.3.5 Gut Content and Ice-Nucleating Agents.- 9.3.6 Low Molecular Weight Cryoprotectant Substances.- 9.3.7 Thermal Hysteresis Proteins.- 9.3.8 Cryoprotectants in Alpine and Polar Microarthropods.- 9.4 Freeze Tolerant Species.- 9.4.1 Why is Freezing Injurious?.- 9.4.2 The Occurence of Freeze Tolerance in Insects.- 9.4.3 Polar and alpine insects.- 9.4.4 Variations in the Degree of Freeze Tolerance.- 9.4.5 Ice Nucleation in Freeze Tolerant Species.- 9.4.6 Cryoprotectant Substances.- 9.5 Freeze Tolerance Versus Freeze Avoidance.- 10 Hot Desert Arthropods at Low Temperatures.- 10.1 Preadaptation to Cold.- 10.2 Cold Hardiness of Different Taxa.- 10.2.1 Scorpions.- 10.2.2 Centipedes.- 10.2.3 Spiders.- 10.2.4 Insects.- 10.3 Conclusions.- 11 Cold Tolerance in “Lower” Invertebrates.- 11.1 Nematodes.- 11.1.1 Strategies of Cold Hardiness.- 11.1.2 Antarctic Nematodes.- 11.1.3 Freeze Tolerance During Anhydrobiosis.- 11.1.4 Freeze Tolerance or Freeze Avoidance?.- 11.2 Tardigrades.- 11.2.1 Freezing in Liquid Gases.- 11.2.2 Freezing at Environmental Temperatures.- 11.2.3 Antarctic Tardigrades.- 11.3 Rotifers.- 11.4 Lumbricid Earthworms.- 11.4.1 Effect of Dehydration.- 11.4.2 Long Term Survival.- 11.4.3 A Protective Dehydration Mechanism.- 11.5 Conclusions.- 12 Summary and Concluding Remarks.- 12.1 Deserts.- 12.2 The Fauna.- 12.3 Behaviour.- 12.4 Life Cycles.- 12.5 Terrestrial Arthropods and Aridity.- 12.6 Cold Hardiness.- 12.6.1 Terrestrial Arthropods.- 12.6.2 Tardigrades and Nematodes.- 12.6.3 Lumbricid Earthworms.- 12.7 Combined Tolerance of Cold and Drought.- 12.8 Anhydrobiosis.- References.

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