Protection measures for the next Internet Protocol
As the world’s networks migrate to the IPv6 protocol, networking professionals need a clearer understanding of the security risks, threats, and challenges this transition presents. In IPv6 Security, two of the world’s leading Internet security practitioners review each potential security issue introduced by IPv6 networking and present today’s best solutions.
IPv6 Security offers guidance for avoiding security problems prior to widespread IPv6 deployment. The book covers every component of today’s networks, identifying specific security deficiencies that occur within IPv6 environments and demonstrating how to combat them.
The authors describe best practices for identifying and resolving weaknesses as you maintain a dual stack network. Then they describe the security mechanisms you need to implement as you migrate to an IPv6-only network. The authors survey the techniques hackers might use to try to breach your network, such as IPv6 network reconnaissance, address spoofing, traffic interception, denial of service, and tunnel injection.
The authors also turn to Cisco® products and protection mechanisms. You learn how to use Cisco IOS® and ASA firewalls and ACLs to selectively filter IPv6 traffic. You also learn about securing hosts with Cisco Security Agent 6.0 and about securing a network with IOS routers and switches. Multiple examples are explained for Windows, Linux, FreeBSD, and Solaris hosts. The authors offer detailed examples that are consistent with today’s best practices and easy to adapt to virtually any IPv6 environment.
Scott Hogg, CCIE® No. 5133, is Director of Advanced Technology Services at Global Technology Resources, Inc. (GTRI). He is responsible for setting the company’s technical direction and helping it create service offerings for emerging technologies such as IPv6. He is the Chair of the Rocky Mountain IPv6 Task Force.
Eric Vyncke, Cisco Distinguished System Engineer, consults on security issues throughout Europe. He has 20 years’ experience in security and teaches security seminars as a guest professor at universities throughout Belgium. He also participates in the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) and has helped several organizations deploy IPv6 securely.
- Understand why IPv6 is already a latent threat in your IPv4-only network
- Plan ahead to avoid IPv6 security problems before widespread deployment
- Identify known areas of weakness in IPv6 security and the current state of attack tools and hacker skills
- Understand each high-level approach to securing IPv6 and learn when to use each
- Protect service provider networks, perimeters, LANs, and host/server connections
- Harden IPv6 network devices against attack
- Utilize IPsec in IPv6 environments
- Secure mobile IPv6 networks
- Secure transition mechanisms in use during the migration from IPv4 to IPv6
- Monitor IPv6 security
- Understand the security implications of the IPv6 protocol, including issues related to ICMPv6 and the IPv6 header structure
- Protect your network against large-scale threats by using perimeter filtering techniques and service provider–focused security practices
- Understand the vulnerabilities that exist on IPv6 access networks and learn solutions for mitigating each
This security book is part of the Cisco Press® Networking Technology Series. Security titles from Cisco Press help networking professionals secure critical data and resources, prevent and mitigate network attacks, and build end-to-end self-defending networks.
Category: Networking: Security
Covers: IPv6 Security
About the Author
Scott Hogg, CCIE No. 5133, has been a network computing consultant for more than 17 years. Scott provides network engineering, security consulting, and training services, focusing on creating reliable, high-performance, secure, manageable, and cost-effective network solutions. He has a bachelor’s degree in computer science from Colorado State University and a master’s degree in telecommunications from the University of Colorado. In addition to his CCIE he has his CISSP (No. 4610) and many other vendor and industry certifications. Scott has designed, implemented, and troubleshot networks for many large enterprises, service providers, and government organizations. For the past eight years, Scott has been researching IPv6 technologies. Scott has written several white papers on IPv6 and has given numerous presentations and demonstrations of IPv6 technologies. He is also currently the chair of the Rocky Mountain IPv6 Task Force and the Director of Advanced Technology Services at Global Technology Resources, Inc. (GTRI), a Cisco Gold partner headquartered in Denver, Colorado.
Eric Vynckeis a Distinguished System Engineer for Cisco working as a technical consultant for security covering Europe. His main area of expertise for 20 years has been security from Layer 2 to applications. He has helped several organizations deploy IPv6 securely. For the past eight years, Eric has participated in the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) (he is the author of RFC 3585). Eric is a frequent speaker at security events (notably Cisco Live [formerly Networkers]) and is also a guest professor at Belgian Universities for security seminars. He has a master’s degree in computer science engineering from the University of Liège in Belgium. He worked as a research assistant in the same university before joining Network Research Belgium, where he was the head of R&D; he then joined Siemens as a project manager for security projects including a proxy firewall. He coauthored the Cisco Press book LAN Switch Security: What Hackers Know About Your Switches. He is CISSP No. 75165.
Table of Contents
Chapter 1 Introduction to IPv6 Security
Reintroduction to IPv6 3
IPv6 Update 6
IPv6 Vulnerabilities 7
Hacker Experience 8
IPv6 Security Mitigation Techniques 9
Recommended Readings and Resources
Chapter 2 IPv6 Protocol Security Vulnerabilities
The IPv6 Protocol Header
ICMPv6 Functions and Message Types
ICMPv6 Attacks and Mitigation Techniques
Extension Header Threats
Extension Header Overview
Extension Header Vulnerabilities
Hop-by-Hop Options Header and Destination Options Header
IPv6 Extension Header Fuzzing
Router Alert Attack
Preventing RH0 Attacks
Additional Router Header Attack Mitigation Techniques
Overview of Packet Fragmentation Issues
Preventing Fragmentation Attacks
Virtual Fragment Reassembly
Unknown Option Headers
Reconnaissance on IPv6 Networks
Scanning and Assessing the Target
Speeding Up the Scanning Process
Leveraging Multicast for Reconnaissance
Automated Reconnaissance Tools
Sniffing to Find Nodes
Node Information Queries
Protecting Against Reconnaissance Attacks
Layer 3 and Layer 4 Spoofing
Chapter 3 IPv6 Internet Security
Large-Scale Internet Threats
Speeding Worm Propagation in IPv6
Current IPv6 Worms
Preventing IPv6 Worms
Distributed Denial of Service and Botnets
DDoS on IPv6 Networks
Black Holes and Dark Nets
Filtering IPv6 Traffic
Filtering on Allocated Addresses
Bogon Filtering Challenges and Automation
Securing BGP Sessions
Explicitly Configured BGP Peers
Using BGP Session Shared Secrets
Leveraging an IPsec Tunnel
Using Loopback Addresses on BGP Peers
Controlling the Time-to-Live (TTL) on BGP Packets
Filtering on the Peering Interface
Using Link-Local Peering
Link-Local Addresses and the BGP Next-Hop Address
Drawbacks of Using Link-Local Addresses
Preventing Long AS Paths
Limiting the Number of Prefixes Received
Preventing BGP Updates Containing Private AS Numbers
Maximizing BGP Peer Availability
Disabling Route-Flap Dampening
Disabling Fast External Fallover
Enabling Graceful Restart and Route Refresh or Soft Reconfiguration
BGP Connection Resets
Logging BGP Neighbor Activity
Extreme Measures for Securing Communications Between BGP Peers
IPv6 over MPLS Security
Using Static IPv6 over IPv4 Tunnels Between PE Routers
Using 6VPE to Create IPv6-Aware VRFs
Customer Premises Equipment
Prefix Delegation Threats
Chapter 4 IPv6 Perimeter Security
Filtering IPv6 Unallocated Addresses
Additional Filtering Considerations
Firewalls and IPv6 Headers
Inspecting Tunneled Traffic
Layer 2 Firewalls
Firewalls Generate ICMP Unreachables
Logging and Performance
Firewalls and NAT
Cisco IOS Router ACLs
Implicit IPv6 ACL Rules
Internet ACL Example
IPv6 Reflexive ACLs
Cisco IOS Firewall
Configuring IOS Firewall
IOS Firewall Example
IOS Firewall Port-to-Application Mapping for IPv6
Cisco PIX/ASA/FWSM Firewalls
Configuring Firewall Interfaces
Security Policy Configuration
Object Group Policy Configuration
Checking Traffic Statistics
Neighbor Discovery Protocol Protections
Chapter 5 Local Network Security
Why Layer 2 Is Important
ICMPv6 Layer 2 Vulnerabilities for IPv6
Stateless Address Autoconfiguration Issues
Neighbor Discovery Issues
Duplicate Address Detection Issues
ICMPv6 Protocol Protection
Secure Neighbor Discovery
Implementing CGA Addresses in Cisco IOS
Understanding the Challenges with SEND
Network Detection of ICMPv6 Attacks
Detecting Rogue RA Messages
Detecting NDP Attacks
Network Mitigation Against ICMPv6 Attacks
Reducing the Target Scope
Extending IPv4 Switch Security to IPv6
Privacy Extension Addresses for the Better and the Worse
DHCPv6 Threats and Mitigation
Threats Against DHCPv6
Mitigating DHCPv6 Attacks
Mitigating the Starvation Attack
Mitigating the DoS Attack
Mitigating the Scanning
Mitigating the Rogue DHCPv6 Server
Chapter 6 Hardening IPv6 Network Devices
Threats Against Network Devices
Cisco IOS Versions
Disabling Unnecessary Network Services
Limiting Router Access
Physical Access Security
Securing Console Access
VTY Port Access Controls
AAA for Routers
IPv6 Device Management
Loopback and Null Interfaces
Securing SNMP Communications
Threats Against Interior Routing Protocol
OSPF Version 3 Security
First-Hop Redundancy Protocol Security
Neighbor Unreachability Detection
Control Plane Policing
Chapter 7 Server and Host Security
IPv6 Host Security
Host Processing of ICMPv6
Services Listening on Ports
Checking the Neighbor Cache
Detecting Unwanted Tunnels
Address Selection Issues
Microsoft Windows Firewall
OpenBSD Packet Filter
Securing Hosts with Cisco Security Agent 6.0
Chapter 8 IPsec and SSL Virtual Private Networks
IP Security with IPv6
IPsec Extension Headers
IPsec Modes of Operation
Internet Key Exchange (IKE)
IKE Version 2
IPsec with Network Address Translation
IPv6 and IPsec
Site-to-Site IPsec Configuration
IPv6 IPsec over IPv4 Example
Configuring IPv6 IPsec over IPv4
Verifying the IPsec State
Adding Some Extra Security
Dynamic Crypto Maps for Multiple Sites
IPv6 IPsec Example
Configuring IPsec over IPv6
Checking the IPsec Status
Dynamic Multipoint VPN
Configuring DMVPN for IPv6
Verifying the DMVPN at the Hub
Verifying the DMVPN at the Spoke
Remote Access with IPsec
Chapter 9 Security for IPv6 Mobility
Mobile IPv6 Operation
Home Agent Address Determination
Threats Linked to MIPv6
Protecting the Mobile Device Software
Rogue Home Agent
Mobile Media Security
Spoofing MN-to-CN Bindings
Using IPsec with MIPv6
Filtering for MIPv6
Filters at the CN
Filters at the MN/Foreign Link
Filters at the HA
Other IPv6 Mobility Protocols
Additional IETF Mobile IPv6 Protocols
Network Mobility (NEMO)
Mobile Ad-hoc Networks
Chapter 10 Securing the Transition Mechanisms
Understanding IPv4-to-IPv6 Transition Techniques
Implementing Dual-Stack Security
Exploiting Dual-Stack Environment
Protecting Dual-Stack Hosts
Hacking the Tunnels
Securing Static Tunnels
Securing Dynamic Tunnels
IPv6 Latent Threats Against IPv4 Networks
Chapter 11 Security Monitoring
Managing and Monitoring IPv6 Networks
Router Interface Performance
Device Performance Monitoring
SNMP MIBs for Managing IPv6 Networks
IPv6-Capable SNMP Management Tools
Router Syslog Messages
Benefits of Accurate Time
Managing IPv6 Tunnels
Using Intrusion Detection and Prevention Systems
Cisco IPS Version 6.1
Testing the IPS Signatures
Managing Security Information with CS-MARS
Managing the Security Configuration
Chapter 12 IPv6 Security Conclusions
Comparing IPv4 and IPv6 Security
Similarities Between IPv4 and IPv6
Differences Between IPv4 and IPv6
Changing Security Perimeter
Creating an IPv6 Security Policy
Host and Device Hardening
On the Horizon
Consolidated List of Recommendations
1587055945 TOC 11/25/2008
Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) is the next version of the protocol that is used for communications on the Internet. IPv6 is a protocol that has been in existence for many years, but it has not yet replaced IPv4. IPv4 has some limitations that were not anticipated when it was first created. Because IPv6 overcomes many of these limitations, it is the only viable long-term replacement for IPv4.
While the migration to IPv6 has started, it is still in its early stages. Many international organizations already have IPv6 networks, the U.S. federal organizations are working on their transitions to IPv6, and others are contemplating what IPv6 means to them. However, many organizations already have IPv6 running on their networks and they do not even realize it. Many computer operating systems now default to running both IPv4 and IPv6, which could cause security vulnerabilities if one is less secure than the other. IPv6 security vulnerabilities currently exist, and as the popularity of the IPv6 protocol increases, so do the number of threats.
When a security officer wants to secure an organization, he must be aware of all potential threats, even if this threat is a ten-year-old protocol that represents less than 1 percent of the overall Internet traffic in 2008. Don’t be blinded by this 1 percent: This figure is doomed to increase in the coming years, and chances are good that your network is already exposed to some IPv6 threats. It’s better to be safe than sorry.
Just like the early deployment of many technologies, security is often left to the final stages of implementation. Our intent in writing this book is to improve the security ofearly IPv6 deployments from day one. Any organization considering or already in the midst of transitioning to IPv6 does not want to deploy a new technology that cannot be secured right from the outset. The transition to IPv6 is inevitable, and therefore this book can help you understand the threats that exist in IPv6 networks and give you ways to protect against them. Therefore, this book gives guidance on how to improve the security of IPv6 networks.Goals and Methods
Currently, many organizations have slowed their migration to IPv6 because they realize that the security products for IPv6 might be insufficient, despite the fact that the network infrastructure is ready to support IPv6 transport. They realize that they cannot deploy IPv6 without first considering the security of this new protocol. This book intends to survey the threats against IPv6 networks and provide solutions to mitigate those threats. It covers the issues and the best current practices.
This book is arranged so that it covers the threats first and then describes ways to combat these threats. By outlining all the risks and showing that a solution exists for each threat, you can feel more comfortable with continuing the transition to IPv6. You learn about techniques attackers might use to breach your networks and what Cisco products to use to protect the networks.
However, showing attacks without solutions is socially irresponsible, so the focus is on the current techniques that are available to make the IPv6 network more secure and on the best current practices.
By reading this book, you can gain an understanding of the full range of IPv6 security topics.Who Should Read This Book
This book is intended to be read by people in the IT industry who are responsible for securing computer networks. You should already know the basics of the IPv6 protocol and networking technology. This book is not an introduction to IPv6. There are many good books and online resources that can teach you about IPv6, and there are many great books on computer network security.
The intent of this book is to dive deeper into the protocol and discuss the protocol details from a security practitioner’s perspective. It is a book for experts by experts. It covers the theory but at the same time gives practical examples that can be implemented.How This Book Is Organized
This book starts with a foundation of the security aspects of the IPv6 protocol. The early topics of this book are arranged from the outward perimeter of an organization’s network inward to the LAN and server farms. The later chapters of the book cover advanced topics. This book can be read completely from start to finish; however, if you want to “skip around,” that is fine. You should eventually read every chapter to gain a comprehensive knowledge of the subject matter.
Some of the information (such as tables and commands) in this book is for reference. You should refer back to this book when it comes time to implement. This gives you cookie-cutter examples to follow that should be in line with the best current practices for securing IPv6. However, do not just go through this book and implement every command listed. Perform some of your own basic research on these commands to make sure that they perform exactly what you intend your network to do.
IPv6 security is an incredibly active research area, and new protocols and new products will continually be developed after this book is written. It is our goal that the “shelf life” of this book is many years because the concepts will still be valid even as Cisco security products continue to evolve with the threat landscape. Every effort was made to make this book as current as possible at the time it was published, but you are advised to check whether new methods are available at the time of reading. The IPv6 security field is quickly evolving as IPv6 gets more widely deployed.
Chapters 1 through 12 cover the following topics:
•Chapter 1, “Introduction to IPv6 Security”: This short chapter reintroduces IPv6, describes how widely it is deployed, discusses its vulnerabilities, and identifies what hackers already know about IPv6. Some initial mitigation techniques are presented.
•Chapter 2, “IPv6 Protocol Security Vulnerabilities”: This chapter discusses the aspects of the IPv6 protocol itself that have security implications. Security issues related to ICMPv6 and the IPv6 header structure are covered. Demonstrations are conducted that show the protocol vulnerabilities, and solutions are given to mitigate those risks. This chapter also covers security issues of IPv6 network reconnaissance and address spoofing.
•Chapter 3, “IPv6 Internet Security”: This chapter covers the large-scale threats against the IPv6 Internet and describes perimeter-filtering techniques that can help protect against those threats. Security for BGP peering is detailed in addition to other service provider–focused security practices. IPv6 MPLS security, security of customer equipment, IPv6 prefix delegation, and multihoming are reviewed.
•Chapter 4, “IPv6 Perimeter Security”: This chapter covers the security threats that exist for perimeter networks that utilize IPv6. The chapter covers common filtering techniques that are deployed at the perimeter of the network. This chapter also covers IPv6 access lists, the IOS Firewall feature set, and the PIX/ASA/FWSM firewalls.
•Chapter 5, “Local Network Security”: This chapter examines the threats against LANs. Many vulnerabilities exist on IPv6 access networks, and these vulnerabilities are covered along with many solutions for mitigating them. The chapter covers issues related to Neighbor Discovery Protocol, autoconfiguration addressing, and DHCPv6 communications on a LAN. This chapter also reviews SEND and describes how it can be implemented.
•Chapter 6, “Hardening IPv6 Network Devices”: This chapter covers the security improvements that can be made to a network device running IPv6. Techniques for securing the management of network devices are reviewed. This chapter reviews ways to secure routing protocols and covers first-hop router redundancy protocols. Techniques for controlling the device’s resources are detailed in addition to ways to control network traffic.
•Chapter 7, “Server and Host Security”: This chapter covers the ways to secure a computer running IPv6. It is important to harden IPv6 nodes from the threats that exist. Microsoft, Linux, BSD, and Solaris operating system IPv6 security techniques are detailed. This chapter covers how host-based firewalls and Cisco Security Agent (CSA) can be used to protect IPv6 hosts.
•Chapter 8, “IPsec and SSL Virtual Private Networks”: This chapter covers the basics of IPsec. The chapter reviews techniques for setting up site-to-site VPN links using IPv6, dynamic multipoint VPNs, as well as remote-access VPNs. The use of ISATAP over an IPsec client connection and the use of SSL VPNs with AnyConnect client are covered.
•Chapter 9, “Security for IPv6 Mobility”: This chapter covers Mobile IPv6 and describes how securing this protocol can be challenging. Mobile IPv6 is reviewed, and the security implications are discussed. This chapter gives recommendations on how Mobile IPv6 can be used responsibly and safely. Additional IPv6-capable mobility solutions are covered along with their security implications.
•Chapter 10, “Securing the Transition Mechanisms”: This chapter discusses the various techniques that are used to help organizations migrate from IPv4 to IPv6. Dual-stack, tunnel, and NAT migration techniques are covered along with their security issues. Each of these techniques has its own security implications and solutions for securing the traffic. This chapter covers the threats by showing examples of how an attacker might try to infiltrate a network. The security protections that can be used to keep the network safe during migration are also covered.
•Chapter 11, “Security Monitoring”: This chapter covers the various systems that are currently available to monitor the security of IPv6 networks. Monitoring a network and the computers on the network is a critical aspect of any security practice. IPv6 networks are the same in this regard and must be managed appropriately. The topics of forensics, intrusion detection and prevention, security information management, and configuration management are covered.
•Chapter 12, “IPv6 Security Conclusions”: This chapter summarizes the common themes discussed throughout the book. Commonalities between IPv4 security and IPv6 security are discussed. This chapter contains discussions about creating IPv6-specific security policies. This chapter also reviews what the future holds for IPv6 security. A consolidated list of IPv6 security recommendations is provided.
© Copyright Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
Most Helpful Customer Reviews
This reference explains how to secure an IPV6 network across the major boundaries and potential targets for breaches: LAN, WAN, firewall-perimeter, VPN, and locking down the router. Many of these guidelines are also relevant to an IPV4 infrastructure and this book is a resource for both network and information security specialists who construct and maintain production environments. IPV6 Security encompasses two sets of concepts: the Self Defending Network's Collaboration, Integration, and Adaptability and InfoSec's Confidentiality, Integrity and Availability. Some noteworthy citations for ensuring security include configuring a WAN BGP session with a Message Digest 5 (MD5) algorithm password and using Secure Neighbor Discovery (SEND) for safeguarding IPV6 layer two addresses. As IPV6 uses named access control lists instead of numbered ACLs, the book explores both access control entries (ACE) and the IPV6 IOS commands in detail. Security is also examined for the IPV6 routing protocols, which include EIGRPv6, RIPng, and OSPFv3. Endpoint and server safeguards are also discussed since BSD, Vista and Server 2008 have IPV6 support incorporated in the operating systems. Since adopting a protection policy is one segment of a secure network, utilities such as Multi-Router Traffic Grapher (MRTG) and CiscoWorks LAN Management Solution are examined for capturing data traffic statistics. Setting a baseline and measuring performance are necessary steps for detecting when a security violation has occurred. IPV6 Security is a must-read resource for those actively engaged in both IPV6 and security implementation. As IPV6 is in its beginning stages and is incorporated into dual-stack architectures with IPV4, there is much to learn. Since information security should always be a consideration, this book offers many examples to consider for protecting the integrity of both the network and data. From a scale of 1-5, this book receives a 5 ranking and I look forward to reading the next book from the authors.
In my quest to learn and transition to IPv6 from IPv4, I learned that you have to have a stable background in learning new materials. IPv6 has been around awhile but now just getting a little more used from many companies and myself. Along with the transition comes concerns with security as IPv4 didn't have much security. With this book [IPv6 Security] the authors took the technology and really explained some very detail and practical aspects of IPv6 with security enhancements. I realyy enjoyed reading this book. The authors did a good job in bringing the IPv6 protocol to the forefront by explaning different parts of the security features like mobile security, running dual stack protocols, IPv6 deployment solutions, address spoofing, and many other network problems. The authors used Cisco products to explain the security mechanisms. they also teach you how to use Cisco IOS® and ASA firewalls and ACLs to filter out IPv6 traffic. This book is one for the ages in describing, explaining, and implementing security in an IPv6 netowrk. Overall the book is great. I gave it a 5 start because of the deep explaining of the IPv6 protocol and security.