Irrigation with Treated Sewage Effluent: Management for Environmental Protection

Irrigation with Treated Sewage Effluent: Management for Environmental Protection

Paperback(Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1991)

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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9783642744822
Publisher: Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Publication date: 12/13/2011
Series: Advanced Series in Agricultural Sciences , #17
Edition description: Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1991
Pages: 224
Product dimensions: 6.10(w) x 9.25(h) x 0.02(d)

Table of Contents

1 Introduction.- 2 Sources, Treatment Processes and Uses of Sewage Effluent.- 2.1 Sources of Sewage Water.- 2.2 Composition of Raw Sewage.- 2.3 Principal Treatment Methods.- 2.3.1 Considerations in Selecting Treatment Level.- 2.3.2 Primary Treatment Methods.- 2.3.3 Secondary Treatment Methods.- 2.3.4 Disinfection.- 2.3.5 Advanced Wastewater Treatment.- 2.4 Reuse and Disposal of Sewage Effluent and Sludge.- 2.4.1 Reuse of Effluent.- 2.4.2 Sludge Disposal.- 2.5 Land Treatment of Sewage Effluent: Approaches, Systems and Methods.- 2.6 Integrating Treated Sewage Effluent in the Overall Water Resources.- 2.7 Storage of Treated Effluent.- 2.8 Properties of Secondary Effluent.- 2.8.1 Introduction.- 2.8.2 Salinity and Sodicity of Effluents.- 2.8.3 Macronutrients.- 2.8.4 Organic Compounds, COD, and BOD.- 2.8.5 Trace Elements and Trace Organics.- 2.8.6 Suspended Solids and Clogging Hazard.- 2.8.7 Pathogens.- 3 Effect of Irrigation with Treated Sewage Effluent on Soil, Plant and Environment.- 3.1 Salinity and Sodicity.- 3.1.1 Determination of Soil Salinity.- 3.1.2 The Control of Soil Salinity.- 3.1.3 Soil Sodicity and Soil Physical Properties.- 3.1.4 The Crop-Salinity Production Function.- 3.1.5 Total Salinity (Osmotic) Effect.- 3.1.6 Specific Ion Toxicity Effects.- 3.1.7 Direct Injury to the Foliage.- 3.2 Transport of Chemicals and Hazardous Materials in the Soil.- 3.2.1 Introduction.- 3.2.2 Mechanistic-Deterministic Approach.- 3.2.3 Stochastic Approach.- 3.3 Nitrogen.- 3.3.1 Introduction.- 3.3.2 Nitrogen Transformations in Soil.- 3.3.3 Nitrate Leaching from the Root Zone.- 3.3.4 Uptake of N by Crops.- 3.3.5 Effect of Overdose of N on Crop Production and Quality.- 3.4 Phosphorus.- 3.4.1 Introduction.- 3.4.2 Phosphorus Concentration and Forms in Soils.- 3.4.3 Phosphorus Transformations in Soils.- 3.4.4 Soil Processes Affecting P Movement.- 3.4.5 Effect of Irrigation with Sewage Effluent on Soil P and P Movement in Soil Profile.- 3.4.6 Phosphorus Uptake by Crops.- 3.4.7 Prediction of P Movement and Leaching Through the Soil.- 3.5 Potassium.- 3.5.1 Role of Effluent K in Agriculture.- 3.5.2 Sources, Phases and Transformations of Soil-K.- 3.5.3 Potassium Uptake by Crops.- 3.5.4 Potassium Transport in Soils.- 3.6 Trace Elements.- 3.6.1 Introduction.- 3.6.2 Practical Considerations.- 3.6.3 Trace Element Reactions in Soil.- 3.6.4 Beneficial and Hazardous Effects of Trace Elements on Plants and Animals.- 3.6.5 Food Chain Aspects.- 3.6.6 Effects of Specific Trace Elements on Soil, Plant, and Food Chain.- 3.7 Organic Compounds.- 3.7.1 Organic C and N.- 3.7.2 Trace Organics.- 3.7.3 Reactions of Trace Organics in Soil.- 3.8 Suspended Solids.- 3.9 Health Aspects.- 3.9.1 Sources of Health Problems.- 3.9.2 Health Criteria.- 3.9.3 Health Guidelines for the Use of Sewage Effluent in Agriculture.- 4 Practical Use of Effluent Irrigation.- 4.1 Introduction.- 4.2 Arid and Semi-Arid Regions.- 4.2.1 Arizona.- 4.2.2 California.- 4.2.3 New Mexico.- 4.2.4 Mexico.- 4.2.5 Werribee, Australia.- 4.2.6 Frankston, Australia.- 4.2.7 Alberta, Canada.- 4.2.8 Israel.- 4.3 Humind Regions.- 4.3.1 Pennsylvania.- 4.3.2 Florida.- 4.3.3 Braunschweig, Germany.- 5 Irrigation and Fertilization Management.- 5.1 Site Selection — Soil, Hydrological and Climatic Characteristics.- 5.1.1 Topography.- 5.1.2 Soil Properties.- 5.1.3 Geologic Factors.- 5.1.4 Groundwater Depth.- 5.1.5 Climatic Factors.- 5.1.6 Practical Recommendations.- 5.2 Irrigation Scheduling.- 5.2.1 Crop Water Requirements.- 5.2.2 Determination of the Irrigation Interval.- 5.3 Irrigation-Fertilization Interrelations.- 5.3.1 General Considerations.- 5.3.2 Nitrogen Management.- 5.3.3 Phosphorus, Potassium, Calcium, Magnesium and Sulfate Management.- 5.4 Trace Elements.- 5.5 Crop Selection.- 5.6 Drainage.- 5.6.1 Introduction.- 5.6.2 Criteria for Drainage Needs and Design.- 5.7 Monitoring.- 6 Irrigation Systems for Sewage Effluent.- 6.1 Considerations in Irrigation System Design.- 6.1.1 Introduction.- 6.1.2 Theoretical Considerations.- 6.1.3 Surface Irrigation Systems.- 6.1.4 Pressurized Irrigation Systems.- 6.2 Piping Systems.- 6.2.1 Materials.- 6.2.2 Safety.- 6.3 Storage and Pumping.- 6.3.1 Storage.- 6.3.2 Pumps.- 6.4 Chlorination.- 6.5 Precipitation of CaCO3.- 6.6 Fertilizer and Chemical Injection Systems.- 6.7 Filters.- 6.7.1 General Considerations.- 6.7.2 Hydrocyclon (Centrifugal) Filters.- 6.7.3 Screen Filters.- 6.7.4 Gravel or Sand Media Filters.- 6.8 Irrigation System Maintenance.- References.

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