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Logic, Science, and GodHow It All Fits Together
By Paul Stevens
iUniverse, Inc.Copyright © 2011 Paul Stevens
All right reserved.
Chapter OneThe Origin of Man
The Basic Laws of Physics
Since the dawn of time, man has wondered how mankind came to be. The answer is really quite simple. We must understand two basic laws of physics before we can understand man's origin. They are as follows:
First: The law of the conservation of energy, which states that matter can change form, but cannot be destroyed.
Second: Newton's third law of motion, which states that "for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction."
These laws are the basic laws of physics. We can draw sound conclusions from understanding them. One must rely totally on such unvarying laws in order to arrive at the truth about the origin of man.
From the law of the conservation of energy, we can conclude that matter has always existed—and will always exist—but its form can change when acted upon. Existing matter can never become nothing—and matter cannot be made from nothing as we can show with simple mathematics (0=0). Nothing will always be nothing; and something will always be something.
Conservation of Energy
We know matter has always existed because it cannot be made from nothing. We also observe that the form of matter can change in the same way that water does. Water can be in the form of a liquid, solid, or a vapor. Matter can only be changed if acted upon—otherwise matter would remain in the same state as it was before it was acted upon. What is it that causes matter to change its form? It can only be an entity with intelligence that has always existed like all matter does.
We shall define matter that can act and move upon other matter as an Intelligent Entity. Intelligent Entities have to exist or nothing in the universe could be acted upon to affect change. Matter only changes form when acted upon by an Intelligent Entity. There is no other way matter can change form. Obviously, something that can act could not have made itself, so reason tells us Intelligent Entities cannot be destroyed according to the law of the conservation of energy.
Action Is Necessary for Creation to Occur
In order for elements to be assembled or for matter to change its form, it must be acted upon by an Intelligent Entity that can cause action to occur; otherwise, matter would stay in its original state of existence. Sir Isaac Newton stated that "for every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction." The right actions by an Intelligent Entity cause matter to change form and creation to occur. Where there is no action, there can be no reaction or creation. There has to be an Intelligent Entity to act upon matter in order for any creation to occur.
The Origin of Intelligent Entities
We know an independent Intelligent Entity exists in each man and woman; otherwise, we would not be able to act independently of each other. Since nothing can exist unless it is made of something, we can conclude that the Intelligent Entity—though unseen—consists of matter.
Even though we are Intelligent Entities, we obviously did not make ourselves. Where did we and other Intelligent Entities come from? There are only three possible alternatives. Intelligent Entities originated by chance, are made from scratch, or we have always existed. We shall examine each of these alternatives to see which one is correct.
Did Intelligent Entities Originate by Chance?
Some may believe man's intelligence originated spontaneously by chance and evolved without outside intervention. Chance is only a concept and has no tangible, physical properties, is not composed of matter, and cannot produce the necessary energy to cause creation to occur. Chance is composed of nothing. Nothing, such as chance, can cause any reaction to implement creation. It takes something that can emit energy to cause reactions capable of causing creations to occur. Without action, there cannot be a reaction to cause creation. Chance is not part of the formula for the organization of matter. The intelligence of man could not have originated by chance.
Nothing Happens by Chance
If creations were made by chance, then Newton's third law of physics is not true. Instead, a law of physics would state something similar to the following:
Creations are caused by chance. It does not take a thing that can act to cause creation to occur. Creations occur spontaneously without being acted upon by an outside force.
The above statement could not be a true law of physics because it takes an Intelligent Entity that can act to cause creation to occur.
What about Chance Occurrences?
We can clearly see that matter is organized only by an entity that can act, but what about chance occurrences? Don't accidents and other similar phenomena occur by chance? For example, two drivers in different cars collide at an intersection, causing an accident. Did this accident occur by chance? Let us examine accidents to see if they really occur by chance.
We have shown that an Intelligent Entity is the only thing that can organize matter or cause occurrences. Otherwise, things remain stagnant. We can then conclude that Intelligent Entities must be a factor in accidents or there would be no force to cause the accident. Therefore, there is no such thing as an accident that an Intelligent Entity is not involved in. For example, one driver is driving south and another is driving west. They collide at an intersection causing an accident. The accident was not caused by chance. The accident was actually caused by two Intelligent Entities setting in motion two different laws of physics that conflicted with each other.
Some may believe chance occurred when a driver willed a car to drive straight on a slippery, icy road. However, because of the ice—and against the driver's will—the car slid into a ditch, causing an accident. This can be construed to be a chance occurrence, but it is not. The real reason the accident occurred was because the driver's will to drive the car straight on an icy road conflicted with the icy conditions established by the laws of physics. Thus, the accident was not caused by chance, but by the will of a man conflicting with the laws of physics.
A tree branch suddenly falls to the ground, killing a person who was enjoying a picnic in a park. Is this an accident? The answer is no. The unfortunate person simply stood in the way of the laws of physics set in motion by an Intelligent Entity planting a tree long before the tree branch fell. It is simply a matter of the laws of physics doing its job over a period of time that was set in motion by the person planting the tree years earlier. The incident did not occur by chance.
Chance cannot cause anything to be created or made. All action in the universe is caused by Intelligent Entities using the natural law of physics. There is no phenomenon called chance that causes creations to be made or accidents to occur by themselves. What we call accidents only occur when the actions of an Intelligent Entity cause conflicts with the laws of nature.
Did a Big Bang Happen by Chance and Cause Man to Appear?
We may believe our universe was created from a big bang and that everything in the universe originated from the big bang, including mankind. We must remember that Intelligent Entities have always existed and it would take an Intelligent Entity to act in order to cause a big bang to occur. Scientists have often asked, "What was before the big bang?" They know something had to exist before the big bang occurred because nothing can be made from nothing (0=0). One thing is certain: Intelligent Entities have always existed and did not suddenly appear after a big bang. The big bang could not have occurred without action by an Intelligent Entity.
Were Intelligent Entities Made from Scratch?
Some may say Intelligent Entities were created and that no part of an Intelligent Entity existed before it was created, and that Intelligent Entities were created by God. They say God made man from scratch and that the intelligence of man did not exist before God made it.
Man's intelligence was not made by God from scratch for the reasons listed below:
A. Mankind would be robots if our intelligence was created from scratch by God. If mankind was totally made from scratch, including our Intelligent Entity, one must conclude that all men and women would be robots. God would have to program us in some manner or we could not function. Man would only be able to act as he was programmed to act by God. Reason tells us nothing could have made our Intelligent Entity because we can and do act on our own, independent of all other Intelligent Entities. Therefore, our Intelligent Entity, whatever its composition, has always existed, or we would be robots. We all know we are responsible for our own decisions. We are not robots.
B. Mankind would have no need for ethics if a man's Intelligent Entity was made from scratch. We are taught right from wrong at an early age because we have the ability to choose between right and wrong independently, by ourselves. There would be no need for us to be taught right from wrong if we could not choose between right and wrong. Instead, we would have to respond exactly like God made us to respond. It would be unjust for God to punish us for something we did wrong if He programmed us to do it. We are free to choose right from wrong.
Have Intelligent Entities Always Existed?
Man's intelligence did not come into existence by chance or by being made from scratch. The only other reasonable alternative is that Intelligent Entities have always existed. We cannot see Intelligent Entities or know their composition, but we can calculate that they exist like other things we know exist that we cannot see, such as wind and air. All other possibilities for the origin of man's intelligence have been eliminated. We can soundly reason that Intelligent Entities have always existed independent of other Intelligent Entities, and that each Intelligent Entity can act on its own. An independent Intelligent Entity exists in every man and woman, enabling mankind to retain knowledge, make decisions, feel emotions, and act.
Since there is nothing known about the composition of Intelligent Entities, we can simply define it as a thing consisting of something, or we might possibly say it is composed of matter that can never be created or destroyed, that can act and be acted upon. This is all we know in our current stage of existence. Because each of us is an Intelligent Entity, we are subject to the laws of the universe and can be acted upon by God and other Intelligent Entities.
Matter in the universe is in a state that can be acted upon by Intelligent Entities. What we call "chance occurrences," or accidents, do not happen by chance, but are caused by Intelligent Entities setting in motion conflicting natural laws of physics. All occurrences are the result of actions caused by Intelligent Entities. The idea that creations occur by chance is not based on science, any principle of physics, or sound logic and is not accurate. Creation cannot occur by chance. Creation only occurs when things that can act (Intelligent Entities) act upon various forms of matter. There is no other way a creation can be made. Nothing happens by chance. That mankind originated by chance relates more to a religious concept than to science.
We can be assured that man possesses an Intelligent Entity that has had a past without a beginning and will have a future without an end. Intelligent Entities have always existed, independent of each other, will always exist, and are an independent, intricate part of each man and woman. There is no other reasonable conclusion that can be drawn. If there have not always been Intelligent Entities that can act, nothing in the universe could have been set in motion, the universe would be stagnant, and Newton's third law of physics would not exist because there would be nothing in the universe to cause action to occur.
Chapter TwoTwo Categories of Laws Governing the Universe and Man
The Laws of Physics (Natural Laws) and the Laws of Sociality
Reason tells us that the laws of physics governing nature must be obeyed for harmony to exist. The laws of physics were not made and cannot be made. They have always existed and will always exist. They can be counted on to never vary. Chaos can result when the laws of physics and nature are not adhered to. Harmony only results when these laws are obeyed. The laws of physics (natural law) benefit mankind when obeyed. They are a detriment to mankind if they are not obeyed.
The law of sociality concerns the treatment of others. They are actions of any kind that promote harmony among mankind. Any action caused by one person against another person that is harmful to that person in any way, whether physically or emotionally, would be breaking the laws of sociality. All action of one person toward another person must be for the benefit of that person. Any detrimental action willingly committed against another person constitutes a breach of the laws of sociality.
If every person strictly adhered to the laws of sociality, they would be conscious of the welfare of others. There would be no need for law enforcement. James Madison wisely said, "If men where angels, no government would be necessary." The actions of all persons would be in complete harmony with each other. Is it possible for man to evolve and reach such a state where everyone's actions conform to the laws of sociality? The answer is yes! Reason tells us that given sufficient time and desire, we can attain a state wherein all of our actions are for the benefit of others as well as ourselves. Before we can reach such a state, we must gain additional experience and become further enlightened. With additional experience and enlightenment, we can learn obedience to the laws of sociality by the things we suffer when we do not obey the laws of sociality.
There are laws of physics (natural laws) and laws of sociality. We must learn and obey all these laws in order to evolve into a higher state of happiness.
Chapter ThreeIs There a Need for a God?
Corporations have presidents, companies have managers or owners who manage their organizations, and countries have prime ministers, presidents, or other leaders. Reason tells us that every organization needs a leader—someone to direct, motivate, and help enforce rules and regulations for the benefit of everyone in the organization. Without a leader, an organization disintegrates, ceases to exist, or splits into different factions that then have leaders. The same applies to humanity in the universe. It is only reasonable that a leader must bring harmony to the universe and assist with man's progress—not just an ordinary leader, but an exceptional leader that knows everything and there is nothing save he knows it. If the leader did not know and control everything, something he did not know about could destroy us. An exceptional leader is essential in order to gain the confidence of followers. We need such a leader. It is obvious that we have our leader whom we shall call "God" who brings harmony to the universe and assists us in our progression.
Attributes a God Must Have to Be a God
A God must be all knowing, all powerful, just, and merciful in order to be a God. Our God possesses all of these attributes as explained below.
1. God must be all-knowing. There must be nothing save God knows it. We know this is possible because knowledge is finite concerning any matter, not infinite. The laws of the universe must be completely understood for other Intelligent Entities, such as ourselves, to have total, unreserved confidence in him. Who would have confidence or faith in a leader that did not know how to control all laws—some of which could hurt us if not controlled?
Excerpted from Logic, Science, and God by Paul Stevens Copyright © 2011 by Paul Stevens. Excerpted by permission of iUniverse, Inc.. All rights reserved. No part of this excerpt may be reproduced or reprinted without permission in writing from the publisher.
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