2019 Reprint of 1910 Edition. Full facsimile of the original edition, not reproduced with Optical Recognition software. This profusely illustrated edition contains nearly 1000 illustrations of all types of mechanical devices. Chapters on:
Transmission of Power; Measurement of Power, Springs; Generation of Power, Steam; Steam Power Appliances; Explosive Motor Power and Appliances; Hydraulic Power and Appliances; Air-Power Motors and Appliances; Gas and Air-Gas Devices; Electric Power and Devices; Navigation, Vessels, Marine Appliances; Road and Vehicle Devices; Railway Devices; Motion and Controlling Devices; Horological Devices; Mining Devices and Appliances; Mill and Factory Appliances and Tools; Textile Devices; Engineering and Construction Devices; Draughting Devices.
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Mechanical Appliances, Mechanical Movements and Novelties of Construction
By Gardner D. Hiscox
Dover Publications, Inc.Copyright © 2008 Dover Publications, Inc.
All rights reserved.
MECHANICAL POWER, LEVER.
MECHANICAL APPLIANCES AND NOVELTIES OF CONSTRUCTION.
1. LEVER IN A DRAUGHT EQUALIZER for four horses. This equalizer consists of a doubletree having singletrees, a bar pivoted at one end to a lateral frame on the pole and connected at its outer end to the doubletree, a crossbar pivoted to the rear end of the pole being connected at one end by a rod connected at its other end to the bar pivoted to the lateral frame on the pole. The singletrees on the opposite side of the pole are pivoted to the end of a bar extending across the pole and pivoted to the crossbar. By this construction the draught of the horses secured to all the singletrees will be equalized, the doubletree on the pole being permitted to have a movement backward and forward on the end of a bar which is free to swing beneath the raised portion of a strap secured to the pole.
2. TIMBER OR LOG GRAPPLE. A handy device for carrying heavy timbers, joists, railroad ties, telegraph poles, etc.
3. LEVER EQUALIZER FOR SULKY PLOWS. Two jaws, forming a double clevis, attached to the front end of the beam of the plow, and so arranged that by means of a series of holes in the jaws the plow may be regulated to run at a greater or less depth, and also to cut a furrow of any desired width.
Two levers of different lengths, to which the draught eveners of the team are secured, are pivoted one on either side of the jaws, and are connected by a chain that passes around a sheave secured on the under side of the drawbar. By this means the draught is equalized between the two beams. Swinging arms, pivoted to the sides of the beam, sustain the chains and hold them so as to draw straight from the equalizing levers.
4. LEVER EQUALIZER FOR THREE HORSES on single pole. The arms, A C, are fastened to opposite sides of the tongue, and the pivots in their ends are at equal distances from the tongue. To the end of the arm, A, is pivoted a doubletree, B, to one end of which a singletree, G, is held, and to the opposite end a singletree, F, is held adjustably by a pin passed through one of a series of holes in the end of the doubletree. The doubletree is pivoted about two-fifths of its length from the outer end. To the end of the arm, C, is pivoted a doubletree, D, on the outer end of which a singletree, H, is held by a pin through one of a row of holes. The inner end of this doubletree is connected by loops, E, with the middle of the doubletree, B. The doubletree, D, is pivoted about one-third of its length from its inner end. By means of the holes in the ends of the two doubletrees the leverage can be varied to suit conditions. The direct draught of the tongue is in the center of the two draught points.
5. LEVER NIPPERS. A laborsaving device in the hands of the wire worker. Its lever advantage is readily seen by inspection of the detailed parts as a compound lever, which doubles the cutting power of the nippers.
5A. THREE-HORSE EVENER. This three-horse evener differs from the ordinary kind in that the extension parts are used to hitch the third horse in front of the tongue. It is made by using the doubletree for a two-horse team and, in place of the singletrees, use the pieces shown. Each of these pieces is a little longer than one-half the length of the doubletree. Each piece is fastened to the doubletree in place of a singletree at a point one-third the way from one end. The singletrees are fastened to the short end of the pieces, and the longer ends of the two are joined with two bars and a clevis which is attached to a chain running on the under side of the tongue. The chain is kept from sagging by several hooks or rings fastened in the wood. This evener prevents the lead horse from pulling the greater part of the load. The engraving shows the under side of the tongue.CHAPTER 2
TRANSMISSION OF POWER.
6. UNIVERSAL SCREW DRIVER. The handle has a ratchet socket in which the three-point blade may be inserted for greater power or to accommodate special conditions.
7. A section showing the ratchet and pawl socket for holding the square shank of the blade for corner work.
8. QUICK COUPLING for sewer rods. Makes a smooth continuous rod that can not uncouple while in use.
9. TRANSMISSION of power by wire rope and anchored levers. The braced tee pieces A B, with their arms connected with a distant rocker by the wire W W, pivoted to the windmill frame and to the crank rod at A, make a very effective method of operating a pump at a distance. A strong fence wire is sufficient for a house pump and may be supported on rollers for long distances.
10. BAG ELEVATOR. The bags are delivered from a car door on to a grating through which the forked hands of the elevator picks them up and discharges upon an inclined chute grating to slide to a horizontal carrier from which they are deposited at any desired place. The forked hands are braced loosely to the sprocket chains, which are guided in grooved posts, so that there is no sag to the forks when the load is on.
11. HORIZONTAL CONVEYOR. Receives the bags from the elevator (Fig. 10) and deposits them along a warehouse floor by dumping them off the side at places where the inclined guide board is set.
12. I BEAM TROLLEY. A simple and effective apparatus with a chain tackle for setting heavy work in lathes and moving light articles in shops.
The I beam makes a most convenient outrigger from the front of a warehouse or factory for the transfer of goods to and from trucks.
13. TWO WAY CONVEYOR. Method by which a rope and disk conveyor can be made to change its direction. For grain, gravel, sand, clay, and other loose material.
14. ROPE TRAMWAY CARRIAGE. Bleichert System. The upper rope is the bearing cable and trolley, the lower one is the hauling rope with the grip device attached to the car frame. The pull of a lanyard starts or stops the car.
15. Shows a side view of the open car frame and grip cam.
16. FRICTION PULLEY. The central hub A, which is keyed to the shaft, is turned up to form a bearing for the pulley and for the cover B fastened over the circular chamber in the pulley. The gripping dogs or levers C—hung at the ends of the arms on hub A—are finished at one end to fit the friction surface in the pulley chamber. The countershaft is drilled out to receive the hardened rod D, which is connected to the shipper. As the rod is moved in the shaft by the shipper, a double wedge—formed on the rod—forces out the two pins E, and these pins press the gripping levers tight against the friction surface. When the rod is moved in the opposite direction the springs force the pins toward the center and release the levers. A screw plug at the back of the chamber can be removed and the pins E adjusted to give the gripping levers the desired pressure.
17. A section showing the pins and wedge rod.
18. GEARED I BEAM TROLLEY. Designed for moving heavy articles on overhead I beam railways in factories. The trolley wheels are geared to a driving shaft with sprocket wheel and chain, the lift being an ordinary tackle, not shown.
19. VARIABLE POWER AND SPEED with friction cone pulleys and traversing pulley as applied to a drilling machine. The transmitting roller is pivoted in a frame that slides on a side bar and is clamped by a screw at the position required for the desired speed. See No. 106, 1st vol., for a frictionless form of transmitting roller.
20. WORM GEAR ELEVATOR. Sprague type. The double worm and gear serves the purpose of balancing the thrust of the driving shaft and is also a means of safety from breakage of teeth. The wear on the worms and gear is also much lessened by their duplication.
21. CASH CARRIER. To the upper surface of the car are secured uprights, in which are journaled the axles of grooved wheels running upon the overhead wire or track. In other uprights is held a rod on which are placed two coiled springs, so arranged that the rod acts as a double buffer to the carrier, each of its ends being adapted to strike a stop block, two of which are attached to the wire, one at each end. Near each end of the bar is a pawl, acted upon by a spring which lifts its free end so it will automatically engage with a lip formed on the stop block for holding the car stationary when it reaches either end of its trip. The pawls are disconnected and the car started by means of levers pivoted to the frame and connected with the pawls.
22. VARIABLE SPEED DEVICE. The wheels A and A' are each made up of two disks mounted on a shaft and carrying between them small toothed pinions, B B B, and B' B' B', which are mounted on roller clutches. The bearings for the pinions are arranged to move radially in the slots shown in the plates, so that the diameter around which the chain must wrap, may be lengthened or shortened at will. If the pinions of one wheel or drum are moved radially outward, those of the mating drum must be moved inward, and vice versa.
The pinions are moved radially by means of two scroll plates for each sprocket, the spiral slots of which engage the bearings of the pinions and move them in the same manner as the jaws of a scroll chuck are operated. The manner in which the scroll plates are turned, to effect changes in diameter of driving and driven gears, is accomplished by the simultaneous moving in or out of two flat racks lying in slots cut in the sprocket shafts.
23. FRICTION PULLEY. The flange at the left is fast on the shaft, while the flange at the right is loose. On the end of the hub of the latter flange teeth are cut, the surfaces between the teeth being helical, as shown. The fixed collar at the right is milled to correspond. The spring secured to the loose flange and the collar is always under tension and tends to rotate the flange in the direction in which the belt travels. As the flange turns on the shaft it is forced against the running pulley and is then turned by the friction until the pulley is clamped fast between the two friction surfaces, when the pulley, flanges, and shaft all rotate together. To release the pulley, the brake—shown just below the right-hand friction disk—is brought against the angular face of the flange. This holds the flange back, but the collar still turns ahead with the shaft, thus removing the end pressure on the friction and releasing the pulley.
24. A section showing the details of construction.
25. PANEL CLUTCHES. Simpson type. A silent clutch that prevents back movement and takes up a forward motion without the jerk of a ratchet and pawl. Useful on agricultural implements, sewing-machines, etc.
26. The under figure represents a triangular quick-action panel applied on the same principle as the other against three friction segments. Plan and section.
27. FRICTION PULLEY. Upon the hub of the pulley is keyed a collar with lugs on one side which engage with lugs on the friction disk; this causes the disk that fits loosely on the hub of the pulley to revolve with the pulley, and at the same time leaves the disk free to vibrate sideways if necessary. The advantage of the disk being loosely connected with the pulley in this manner, will be appreciated in case the pulley should become worn loose on the shaft.
28. VISCOSIMETER. An instrument for measuring the viscosity of liquids, or the resistance which a liquid offers to flowing or a quick change of state. The liquid to be tested is placed in the reservoir in which is a paddle-shaped agitator or wheel. The shaft of this wheel is run by a train of gears actuated by a drum, which is caused to revolve by means of a weight and cord as shown. At the upper end of the shaft is a worm and worm wheel and on the shaft of the worm wheel is a pointer, which passes over the face of a dial, by which the speed of the paddle or agitator can be ascertained, The weight is first drawn up by means of the crank on top of the drum. The liquid is poured into the reservoir and the latter raised to the proper point to give the paddle wheel the proper submersion. The trip on the paddle shaft just below the dial is then thrown out, when the drum and weight start the paddle wheel revolving. The viscosity of the liquid, with reference to some other liquid taken as a standard, is then determined by noting the indications of the pointer on the dial. The number of revolutions of the pointer or the number of divisions passed over in a given time, compared to the reading when testing another liquid, indicates the relative viscosity.
29. POSITIVE COMBINATION CLUTCH. The first motion of the clutch handle brings the friction cones into contact; a further push of the handle moves the teeth of the clutch into contact and prevents slipping of the friction cones. The bell-crank arm on the handle holds the clutch fast in its locked position.
30. PNEUMATIC BELT SHIPPER. The device consists simply of a small air cylinder with a piston travel, such as will give the belt the proper throw; the cylinder is piped from each end to a two-way cock, the plug of which has a bar with a looped cord within reach of the operator. Attached to the piston is an arm o, which extends down to the bar carrying the shifter forks—air does the rest. Section 31 explains the whole thing for a belt requiring but one movement.
Machines having a backing belt are provided for by the arrangement shown in section 32, in which the piston and belt shifter are held in a central position by two coiled springs when the belts are on the loose pulleys. The springs are compressed, and their resistance is easily overcome, when air is admitted to the opposite ends of the cylinder, which action will put the belt on either the forward or backing pulleys.
33. ACOUSTIC TELEPHONE. The mouthpiece, a, has a central aperture for the passage of sound waves to the diaphragm, c, whose edges are secured within a rabbet of the mouthpiece. The diaphragm is about 7 inches in diameter and is made of spruce wood, which possesses great sonorousness combined with strength sufficient to sustain the tension of the line wire. The mouthpiece and diaphragm are held to the wall on a bed piece, b, by the tension of the line wire. The bed piece is recessed at both sides, fg, and centrally apertured for the passage of threads connecting the line wire to the diaphragm. The front recess, f, affords a space between the diaphragm and the center of the bed piece for free action of the diaphragm, promoting clearness of enunciation when the instrument is used as a receiver, and the rear recess, g, secures a small marginal support for the transmitter, thereby avoiding a large contact with the wall and preventing excessive vibration.
To avoid indistinct articulation and the ringing sounds common to acoustic telephones, the line wire is connected to the diaphragm by silk cords, which are twisted about the end of the wire to obtain a firm connection therewith, and which diverge into three or more strands that are secured to a metal ring, c, between which and the diaphragm a rubber or leather ring, d, is interposed. The line wire is made of strands twisted together and coated with varnish to bind them and prevent them rubbing upon one another.
34. ACOUSTIC TELEPHONE. Wire suspension to facilitate transmission of sound by making the angular turns at about 45°, with rubber straps wired to a yoke of wood as shown. Small dampers of rubber or leather are wired or tied on to the main wire between nodal points to prevent undue vibration and change of tone by wind or rain. The mouthpiece, if of metal, should be grounded, to prevent electric sparks.
35. ACOUSTIC TELEPHONE. The front board, A, of the box is provided with a central aperture. The diaphragm, b, is stretched over the central opening of a board, D, which has strengthening ribs on its under side and along the edges. An annular block of wood, F, whose thickness decreases from the top toward the bottom on the inner as well as the outer side, is placed between the front board and the diaphragm. The upper opening of the block coincides with the central opening of the front board, and the bottom opening is smaller than the opening in the board, D. The bottom edge of the block is pressed upon the diaphragm by bolts, G. In the central opening of the block is a funnel-shaped vessel, H, held in place by wires, ab, at the top and bottom, which hold the lower end of the funnel a short distance from the diaphragm. A button is fastened to the middle of the diaphragm, to which is fastened the wire, K. The funnel concentrates the sound waves and guides them to the diaphragm, thus causing strong and distinct vibrations that reproduce the words very plainly. The diaphragm is formed of alternate layers of skin and a textile fabric, or of hard rubber about 1/16 inch thick.
36. ACOUSTIC TELEPHONE. The characteristics of this telephone are a curved mouthpiece, D, a vibrating chamber, I, with an ear tube, T, for returning the vibrations to the ear without moving the head in conversation. It also has attached a clock-gear vibrator, which makes a loud call by the hammer strokes on the diaphragm. The mouthpiece, D, and the resonator, I, may be made of metal, hard rubber, wood, or papier-maché as convenient, from 3 to 5 inches in diameter. 37. Cross section.
Excerpted from Mechanical Appliances, Mechanical Movements and Novelties of Construction by Gardner D. Hiscox. Copyright © 2008 Dover Publications, Inc.. Excerpted by permission of Dover Publications, Inc..
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Table of Contents
Mechanical Power Lever
Transmission of Power
Measurement of Power, Springs
Generation of Power, Steam
Steam Power Appliances
Explosive Motor Power and Appliances
Hydraulic Power and Appliances
Air-Power Motors and Appliances
Gas and Air-Gas Devices, etc.
Electric Power and Devices
Navigation, Vessels, Marine Appliances, etc.
Road and Vehicle Devices, etc.
Railway Devices and Appliances, etc.
Gearing and Gear Motion, etc.
Motion and Controlling Devices, etc.
Horological Time Devices, etc.
Mining Devices and Appliances
Mill and Factory Appliances and Tools, etc.
Textile and Manufacturing Devices, etc.
Engineering and Construction, etc.