Medical Sociology

Medical Sociology

by William C. Cockerham

Hardcover(Revised)

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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781138668331
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Publication date: 04/24/2017
Edition description: Revised
Pages: 452
Product dimensions: 7.50(w) x 9.25(h) x (d)

About the Author

William C. Cockerham received his Ph.D. from the University of California at Berkeley, USA, and is Distinguished Professor and Chair of Sociology at the University of Alabama at Birmingham, USA. He holds secondary appointments in medicine and public health and is recipient of the Frederick W. Connor Prize for Outstanding Contribution to the History of Ideas and the Caroline P. and Charles W. Ireland Award for Scholarly Distinction. He is past President of the Research Committee on Health Sociology of the International Sociological Association and formerly was on the Editorial Board of the American Sociological Review. Currently, he is on the Editorial Boards of Social Currents and Society and Mental Health. Dr. Cockerham has published numerous peer-reviewed papers in academic journals and is author or editor of 18 books. His most recent books from Routledge include Sociology of Mental Disorder 10E (2017).

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PREFACE:

PREFACE

The field of medical sociology has undergone considerable change since the first edition of this textbook appeared in 1978. At that time, much of the research in medical sociology was dependent upon the sponsorship of physicians, and a clear division of labor existed between sociologists working in academic departments in universities and those working in health institutions. Today, that situation has changed drastically. Medical sociology is no longer highly dependent on the medical profession for funding or focus—although a strong alliance continues to exist in many cases. Medical sociologists exercise their craft in an increasingly independent manner, either working with a greater degree of partnership with health care professionals or functioning as medicine's critics should the situation warrant it. Furthermore, research and teaching in medical sociology in both universities and health institutions are increasingly similar in the application of theory and usefulness in addressing problems relevant to clinical practice. In sum, medical sociology has evolved into a mature, objective, and independent field of study and work.

Medical sociology has also experienced significant growth worldwide in numbers of practitioners. In many countries, including the United States, Canada, Australia, Great Britain, Finland, Germany, the Netherlands, and Singapore, medical sociologists are either the largest or one of the largest specialty groups in sociology. The European Society for Health and Medical Sociology is a large and active professional society, as are the medical sociology sections of the American, British, and German sociologicalassociations. In 1999, the American and British medical sociology sections held their first joint meeting at London University's Royal Holloway College. Elsewhere, the Japanese Society of Health and Medical Sociology is working to further develop the field in its nation, while medical sociologists in Latin America hold regional conferences on a regular basis and have their own Spanish-language journals.

Numerous books, journals, college and university courses, medical programs, and lecture series in medical sociology now exist in different parts of the world. This textbook, for example, has been translated into Chinese by Yang Hui and Zhang Tuohong of Beijing Medical University and published by Huaxia Publishing House in Beijing. In the United States, several universities offer specialties in medical sociology, while two universities, the University of Alabama at Birmingham and the University of California at San Francisco—both with large medical campuses—offer doctorates in medical sociology. Columbia University in New York City offers a combined Ph.D. program in sociology and public health, while medical sociology has traditionally been the major focus in sociology departments at the University of Kentucky and the University of Miami (Florida). Additionally, there are departments of social medicine, which include medical sociologists, at Harvard University and the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, as well as McGill University in Montreal.

The principal goal of this textbook since its inception has been to introduce students to medical sociology by presenting the ideas, concepts, themes, theories, and research findings in the field. This edition—the eighth—continues this approach. The intent is to identify and discuss the most current issues, debates, and findings in medical sociology.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The material contained in the pages of this book is my own responsibility in terms of perspective, scope, and style of presentation. Nevertheless, I am deeply grateful to several people for their assistance in preparing the eight editions of this book. I would like to acknowledge the insightful comments of those colleagues who reviewed all or part of this work throughout the revision process. For sharing their views and helping to improve the quality of this book, my appreciation goes to Melvin Barber, Florida A&M University; Paul Berzina, County College of Morris; Deirdre Bowen, University of Washington; Herbert Bynder, University of Colorado; Robert Clark, Midwestern State University; John Collette, University of Utah; Spencer Condie, Brigham Young University; Morton Creditor, University of Kansas Medical Center; Norman Denzin, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign; Karen A. Donahue, Hanover College; Barry Edmonston, Cornell University; Eliot Freidson, New York University; Reed Geertsen, Utah State University; Sharon Guten, Case Western Reserve University; Joseph Jones, Portland State University; Daniel J. Klenow, North Dakota State University; Sol Levine, Harvard University and the New England Medical Center; Richard C. Ludtke, University of North Dakota; Robert Terry Russell, College of St. Francis; Alexander Rysman, Northeastern University; Jeffrey Salloway, University of New Hampshire; Anne Saunders, College of St. Francis; Neil Smelser, Center for the Advanced Study of the Behavioral Sciences, Stanford; and George J. Warheit, University of Miami (Florida). I would also like to thank three doctoral students in medical sociology at UAB who provided important assistance in the preparation of this edition: Sara Daum, Chris Snead, and Garrison Thompson.

William C. Cockerham
Birmingham, Alabama

Table of Contents

Preface xiii

Part I Introduction

1 Medical Sociology 1

The Development of Medical Sociology 2

Defining Health 7

Contrasting Ideas about Health and Social Behavior 8

The Re-emergence of Infectious Diseases 13

Bioethics 19

Summary 21

Suggested Reading 21

Medical Sociology Internet Sites 21

2 Epidemiology 23

Epidemiological Measures 24

The Development of Epidemiology 26

The Complexity of Modern Ills: Heart Disease 29

Disease and Modernization 33

HIV/AIDS 35

Summary 42

Suggested Reading 42

Epidemiology Internet Sites 43

3 Social Demography of Health: Social Class 45

The Components of Social Class 47

Modern Diseases and the Poor 51

Equality of Care and the Social Gradient in Mortality: The British Experience 52

Neighborhood Disadvantage 57

SES as a Fundamental Cause of Sickness and Mortality 59

Summary 62

Suggested Reading 62

Social Class and Health Internet Sites 62

4 The Social Demography of Health: Gender, Age, and Race 64

Gender 64

Age 73

Race 77

Summary 88

Suggested Reading 88

Social Demography of Health: Gender, Age, and Race Internet Sites 88

Part II Health and Illness

5 Social Stress and Health 90

Cooley, Thomas, and Goffman: Symbolic Interaction 91

Durkheim: Functionalism 93

Stress 96

Social Factors and Stress 99

Life Changes 103

Summary 111

Suggested Reading 111

Social Stress Internet Sites 112

6 Health Behavior and Lifestyles 113

Health Lifestyles 114

Preventive Care 129

Summary 132

Suggested Reading 133

Health Behavior and Lifestyles Internet Sites 133

7 Illness Behavior 134

Self-Care 135

Sociodemographic Variables 135

Recognizing and Coping withIllness Symptoms 150

Summary and Conclusion 155

Suggested Reading 156

Illness Behavior Internet Sites 156

Part III Seeking Health Care

8 The Sick Role 157

Illness as Deviance 157

The Functionalist Approach to Deviance 160

The Sick Role 161

Medicalization 166

Criticism of the Sick Role 169

Labeling Theory 174

Sickness as Social Deviance? 177

Being Sick and Disabled 178

Stigma 180

Summary 181

Suggested Reading 182

The Sick Role Internet Sites 182

9 Doctor-Patient Interaction 184

Models of Interaction 185

Misunderstandings in Communication 188

Communication and Class Background 190

Male Physicians and Women Patients 191

Women Physicians 193

Cultural Differences in Communication 195

Patient Compliance 198

The Future of Doctor-Patient Relations 199

Doctor-Patient Relations and New Technology 200

The New Genetics 203

Summary 205

Suggested Reading 206

Doctor-Patient Interaction Internet Sites 206

10 Healing Options 208

Osteopaths 208

Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) 209

Chiropractors 211

Faith Healers 212

Folk Healers 217

Summary 225

Suggested Reading 225

Healing Options Internet Sites 225

Part IV Providing Health Care

11 Physicians 227

The Professionalization of the Physician 227

The Socialization of the Physician 235

The Power Structure of American Medicine 242

Summary 245

Suggested Reading 245

Physicians Internet Sites 246

12 The Physician in a Changing Society 247

Social Control of Medical Practice 249

Countervailing Power 253

Government Regulation 254

Managed Care 255

The Coming of the Corporation 257

The Changing Physician-Patient Relationship 259

The Deprofessionalization of Physicians 260

The Evolution of the Organization of Medical Practice 262

Summary 263

Suggested Reading 263

The Physician in a Changing Society Internet Sites 264

13 Nurses, Physician Assistants, Pharmacists, and Midwives 265

Nursing: Past and Present 266

Nursing: Future Trends 277

Physician Assistants 279

Pharmacists 280

Midwives 281

Summary 282

Suggested Reading 283

Nurses, Physician Assistants, Pharmacists, and Midwives Internet Sites 283

14 The Hospital In Society 285

The Development of the Hospital as a Social Institution 285

Hospitals in the United States 290

The Organization of the Nonprofit Community Hospital 292

The Hospital-Patient Role 298

The Rising Cost of Hospitalization 303

Summary 305

Suggested Reading 306

Hospitals Internet Sites 306

Part V Health Care Delivery Systems

15 Health Care Delivery and Social Policy in the United States 307

Rising Costs 308

Equity in Health Services 314

Distribution of Services 315

Overview of Health Care Delivery 317

Social Legislation in Health Care 320

Health Reform 325

Health Care: A Right or a Privilege? 327

Summary and Conclusion 330

Suggested Reading 331

Health Care Delivery and Social Policy in the United States Internet Sites 331

16 Global Health Care 332

Socialized Medicine: Canada, Great Britain, and Sweden 338

Decentralized National Health Programs: Japan, Germany, and Mexico 347

Socialist Medicine: Alterations in Russia and China 357

Conclusion 364

Suggested Reading 365

Health Care in Other Countries Internet Sites 365

References 367

Photo Credits 404

Name Index 405

Subject Index 411

Preface

The field of medical sociology has undergone considerable change since the first edition of this textbook appeared in 1978. At that time, much of the research in medical sociology was dependent upon the sponsorship of physicians, and a clear division of labor existed between sociologists working in academic departments in universities and those working in health institutions. Today, that situation has changed drastically. Medical sociology is no longer highly dependent on the medical profession for funding or focus—although a strong alliance continues to exist in many cases. Medical sociologists exercise their craft in an increasingly independent manner, either working with a greater degree of partnership with health care professionals or functioning as medicine's critics should the situation warrant it. Furthermore, research and teaching in medical sociology in both universities and health institutions are increasingly similar in the application of theory and usefulness in addressing problems relevant to clinical practice. In sum, medical sociology has evolved into a mature, objective, and independent field of study and work.

Medical sociology has also experienced significant growth worldwide in numbers of practitioners. In many countries, including the United States, Canada, Australia, Great Britain, Finland, Germany, the Netherlands, and Singapore, medical sociologists are either the largest or one of the largest specialty groups in sociology. The European Society for Health and Medical Sociology is a large and active professional society, as are the medical sociology sections of the American, British, and German sociological associations. In 1999, the Americanand British medical sociology sections held their first joint meeting at London University's Royal Holloway College. Elsewhere, the Japanese Society of Health and Medical Sociology is working to further develop the field in its nation, while medical sociologists in Latin America hold regional conferences on a regular basis and have their own Spanish-language journals.

Numerous books, journals, college and university courses, medical programs, and lecture series in medical sociology now exist in different parts of the world. This textbook, for example, has been translated into Chinese by Yang Hui and Zhang Tuohong of Beijing Medical University and published by Huaxia Publishing House in Beijing. In the United States, several universities offer specialties in medical sociology, while two universities, the University of Alabama at Birmingham and the University of California at San Francisco—both with large medical campuses—offer doctorates in medical sociology. Columbia University in New York City offers a combined Ph.D. program in sociology and public health, while medical sociology has traditionally been the major focus in sociology departments at the University of Kentucky and the University of Miami (Florida). Additionally, there are departments of social medicine, which include medical sociologists, at Harvard University and the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, as well as McGill University in Montreal.

The principal goal of this textbook since its inception has been to introduce students to medical sociology by presenting the ideas, concepts, themes, theories, and research findings in the field. This edition—the eighth—continues this approach. The intent is to identify and discuss the most current issues, debates, and findings in medical sociology.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The material contained in the pages of this book is my own responsibility in terms of perspective, scope, and style of presentation. Nevertheless, I am deeply grateful to several people for their assistance in preparing the eight editions of this book. I would like to acknowledge the insightful comments of those colleagues who reviewed all or part of this work throughout the revision process. For sharing their views and helping to improve the quality of this book, my appreciation goes to Melvin Barber, Florida A&M University; Paul Berzina, County College of Morris; Deirdre Bowen, University of Washington; Herbert Bynder, University of Colorado; Robert Clark, Midwestern State University; John Collette, University of Utah; Spencer Condie, Brigham Young University; Morton Creditor, University of Kansas Medical Center; Norman Denzin, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign; Karen A. Donahue, Hanover College; Barry Edmonston, Cornell University; Eliot Freidson, New York University; Reed Geertsen, Utah State University; Sharon Guten, Case Western Reserve University; Joseph Jones, Portland State University; Daniel J. Klenow, North Dakota State University; Sol Levine, Harvard University and the New England Medical Center; Richard C. Ludtke, University of North Dakota; Robert Terry Russell, College of St. Francis; Alexander Rysman, Northeastern University; Jeffrey Salloway, University of New Hampshire; Anne Saunders, College of St. Francis; Neil Smelser, Center for the Advanced Study of the Behavioral Sciences, Stanford; and George J. Warheit, University of Miami (Florida). I would also like to thank three doctoral students in medical sociology at UAB who provided important assistance in the preparation of this edition: Sara Daum, Chris Snead, and Garrison Thompson.

William C. Cockerham
Birmingham, Alabama

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