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Model of the Universe
By Bobby McGehee
AuthorHouseCopyright © 2010 Bobby McGehee
All right reserved.
Chapter OneMilestone Chart: Universe Minimum Age
Understandable History of Time:
... Illustrated in chronological order; Ten time increments were necessary for the existence of the objects in our region of the known universe. (Increments are itemized following the chart).
Milestones above the main time bar identify chronological events since the first primordial matter annihilation. The sum of the times between milestones culminates into the time necessary to produce white dwarf faded descendants of third generation stars. Such stars are telescope observed in the M4 Globular Cluster.
The FIRST TIME INCREMENT was from '1st positronium annihilation' until the wave of annihilations reached our region.
The SECOND INCREMENT is time period while the ~3 Billion light year wide wave transcended our location. Within the wave, transformations from photons into elementary mass particles occurred. Under the force of velocity enhanced mutual gravity between adjacent particles, they fused progressively into larger particles. These new particles further fused into nuclides of protons, and neutrons (not by collisions from high pressure and temperature as presumed in the BB theory). Particles ultimately accrete into astronomical objects of all sizes. Particles never collide precisely Center of Gravity, to Center of Gravity; therefore some linear momentum is always converted to angular momentum.
The THIRD INCREMENT begins with the birth of the first star objects in our region. Many sizes of first generation stars appeared and most of these accumulated into galaxies, and galactic clusters, as found throughout the universe today. Mutual gravitational orbiting occurs frequently which consumes outward flow linear momentum. Angular momentum as observed throughout the universe substantiates this concept.
The NEXT SEVEN TIME INCREMENTS are the times consumed for star evolution to culminate into the faded white dwarf stars observed in the M4 globular cluster TODAY.
The lower side of the main time bar (Figure 3) illustrates the History and Future of our Solar System and Milky Way Galaxy. ... 'Today' universe age is ~30 Billion years.
Our solar system and galaxy are younger than the globular cluster M-4 white dwarfs, yet the galaxy constituent stars evolved into existence in the same manner as many, if not all, M-4 white dwarf progenitor stars. (How the ages of these star systems are different is logically explained in the reference NUT). Our younger sun has only lived about 1/2 of its 8 to 10 billion year fusion life. The four bars below the overall universe bar illustrates the total life time for our sun, our earth, life on earth, and human existence. The last bar shows the maximum potential life span for our human species. The 'fat' arrow below and to the left of the center of the universe's time bar indicates when the BB proponents think the origin/start date of the universe began!
On a spatial distance scale we always will be slowly decelerating outward from the universe origin. Our physical location (radial direction and distance) in the universe is currently estimated (see Voids, 2007 discovery) to be between 3.5 and 7.5 Billion light years. Our galaxy will continue to circulate in and with the 'local group', vortexing in the 'three dimensional sea of space'. Our outward velocity from the universe's center will continue ad infinitum to decrease as vorticity and entropy increases to consume energy from the outward linear momentum. In the process our local group will merge with other galactic clusters (Figure 10.3).
On the time scale, we are about 28 to 32 billion years from the universe's origin and start point, but our spatial location is much less. Recent observations (2000-2008) indicate there may be about 30 galaxies revolving and circulating in our local group. Our Local Group of galaxies is now marginally qualified to be listed as anACO (Abell) cluster. (See Section 3 for more proof of asymmetry)
Ten Chronological Time Increments on the chart:
1. The deflagration wave reached our region and continues beyond. (~3.5 By) (Billion years)
2. Within the wave thickness primordial positronium matter is continuously converting into mass particles and objects as the wave travels onward and outward. Mass particles and objects precipitated into our region of the universe as it passed through. (1.5 By)
3. Continuing velocity enhanced coalescence and clumping of precipitated mass objects produced stars, including the most senior ancestral giant progenitor stars of M-4 White Dwarf stars. (0.3 By)
4. Fusion burning of fuel within these most senior giant stars was rapid and continued until they exploded in supernovae which disbursed material throughout the region. (~.8 By)
5. Some time is required for the supernovae debris to gravitationally collect into star masses. (~.8 By)
6. Debris collected into second generation rapid burning stars fused some of the light weight nuclides into heavier nuclides limited to the weight of iron until second generation star supernovae again dispersed that material by supernovae explosions. Heavier than iron element nuclides were formed by the extreme pressures and temperatures within and during the brief supernova explosions. (.25 By)
7. Some of the second generation giant ancestral progenitor supernovae debris collects and accretes into third generation stars, some with masses that are similar to our sun, between .9 and 1.44 solar masses. (~.6 By)
8. Third generation stars ignite and their fusion processes continue for 8 to 10 billion years, like in our sun. Near the end of the fusion life of these third generation stars, they swell in size as fuel reserves are significantly reduced, resulting in less gravity to maintain compactness. They swell and cool as they become Red Giants. (~8 to 10 By)
9. At the end of their Red Giant phase, fuel reserves are depleted and these stars pulsate between nuclear fusion cycles of 'off-on-off'. Mass debris is expelled at each cycle of above and below critical mass pressure/density stage. Material is thrown off at each cycle producing planetary nebula (rings of glowing debris) while ultimately leaving at the core a dormant white hot 'White Dwarf' star. (.01 By)
10. White dwarf stars are totally dormant, no longer having sufficient mass and gravity pressure to support fusion, so they cool slowly, only by thermal radiation. Cooling to non-incandescence requires about 14 billion years. (14 By)
Total time = 28 to 32 By
Conclusions from the "Time Line Bar Chart":
The milestone bar chart reveals our thread through time from the beginning of the universe (first annihilation) to, through and beyond the demise of the last living / biological things on earth. Why globular clusters are older than stars in the Milky Way host galaxy and yet populate the same region of the universe is no longer a mystery. It is plausible, logical, and is consistent with this origin of the universe concept (as explained in Reference).
Several studies of 'faded' white dwarfs in star clusters are continuing. Two of these studies were started early in the last decade of the 20th century by two teams of astronomers, both headed by Harvey Richer of the U of B C, by observing the dimmest white dwarfs in the M-4 globular cluster. The milestone identifying this observation is on the lower side of the time bar, and is labeled 'Richer Team'; also labeled 'Today'.
Distribution of chemical elements
Time / Age
Heavy elements (nuclides heavier than iron) were formed early in the universe, when the earliest second generation giant stars burst into supernovae; About 6 to 7 Billion years after the first annihilation starting event. (Figure 3 is a time chart, not a distance map.) The heavy nuclides were fused by the high pressure and temperature within the blast, which also dispersed them. That occurred within about one Billion years before the first solar size (.9 to 1.44 Sol) stars were precipitated from that debris, which was maybe within as little time as one billion years, which was ~8 Billion years after the initial annihilation of positrons and electrons.
Distance / Location
For directional and distance considerations, metals such as nickel, lead, silver, gold, platinum, as well as all other nuclides can be found everywhere between the origin, and all the way out to the newest second generation giant star supernovae which are within about 6 or 7 billion light years of the outward progressing deflagration front. The deflagration front is currently about 28 or more billion light years away from its origin site. However, we can only see stars precipitated at about 1/2 that distance because the front is moving away at almost the speed of light, and the light radiation from stars that are more than almost half way has not yet reached our region of the universe. (Illustrated in Figure 8, and indicated on the book cover, both indicate physical distance relationships). Due to the speed of the outward progressing wave / front and the speed of light travel, the farthest away we can observe physical objects and processes will appear to us as if they were recent.
Chapter TwoAcceleration vs Deceleration; Asymmetry
Hubble numbers are the ratios of the radial component of velocity vs distance. Increasing red-shift with larger distances does not define or indicate acceleration! Red-shift is an approximate measurement of the radial component of velocity from us, but it does not, and can not support 'presumption of acceleration'. Acceleration or deceleration must be proved and determined by other means, including scientific logic. The BB theory presumption is that galaxies are accelerating along a Hubble line, yet there are no forces for acceleration! The NUT concept used observations, logic and scientific thinking to substantiate that a Hubble line is a gradient line across deceleration lines of different galaxies, not a line of galaxy travel. Galaxies are in fact clustering and decelerating!
Variation of Hubble Numbers as observed by astronomers in the 1900's was assumed by the author of the NUT to be due only to directional asymmetry. A table, Figure 3.1 is a list of a range of Hubble numbers, all of which were measured by credible astronomers. A Hubble Number is defined as the numerical value of the ratio of a galaxy's recessional velocity, determined from Doppler red-shift measurement, divided by the distance to the galaxy as determined using various distance markers. When a line is drawn on a graph of velocity verses distance from zero distance and zero velocity through this number on the graph, it suggests the galaxy is traveling along a straight line 'with acceleration', in an outward direction along the 'Hubble line'. Acceleration is only a presumption. This is a process of major importance where the NUT concept is consistent with laws of physics and the BB is not.
Simple analogies were used (Reference) to illustrate how the observation of increasing 'red-shift with distance' is simply deceleration with growth, not acceleration and /or expansion. One analogy describes a truck load of potatoes that are being spilled as the truck progresses along a road past an observer.
Individual spilled potatoes are observed and known to decelerate while those closer to the truck have higher velocities at greater distances from the stationary observer. Also, if a bug on any one of the potatoes observes potatoes in both directions, they all appear to be accelerating away from it. However, the potatoes are undeniably separating ... yet decelerating apart, just like galaxies of the universe are decelerating from us and apart from each other, while being misinterpreted as accelerating.
It has been suggested that the rate of separation in forward and reverse directions from any reference potato might be detectably different (revealing asymmetry). Measuring Hubble number directional asymmetry might allow us to determine our location in the universe. The asymmetry assumption might be verified and calibrated if deceleration is non-linear with distance, as it is in all other fluid flows. However, non-linearity in the 'fluid flow' of the universe is so slight within currently measurable distance accuracies it is questionable if the difference can be detected. The potato analogy is of course only a one dimension flow explanation, but since galactic decelerations are in three dimensional space, directional sensitivity would apply in all three dimensions (six directions). In directions perpendicular to the main flow there would be growing separation, but not as significant as in the flow line direction. Other common analogies (in reference) relate to two and three dimensional processes which further demonstrate the plausibility of this concept for origin of the universe.
Two reasons why accurate measurements of distance and red-shift observations of some galaxy cluster's recession velocities are irregular:
1. Almost all galaxies are members of groups and clusters. Galaxies are circulating (revolving) about other galaxies as well as clusters revolving about other clusters. Galaxy groups are receding, but individual galaxies' circulation in various directions adds or subtracts an intermittent increment of red-shift for the measured 'cluster' recession rates.
2. There is a measurable difference in red-shift (rate of separation and deceleration) due to our off-set location from the site of origin of the Deflagration wave. Of course this assumes we are adequately separated from the site of origin that non-linear deceleration will reveal the direction to the center. If we can make red-shift and distance observations of galaxies on the other side of the origin, the asymmetry might be revealed. (See comments on voids). This will eventually be measured and could identify the asymmetry we want to detect and eventually measure.
Laws of Physics requires that momentum must be conserved; deceleration is caused by linear momentum being surrendered / transferred to angular momentum through the processes of mixing and vortexing. The mix rate is expected to be non-linear, like the pressure drop in all fluid flows is a second order 'square' function with distance. ([DELTA]P = k*([rho] [v.sup.2])/2),. Thus, the linear velocity will decrease with distance traveled as the mixing and angular momentums increase. The curvature of asymmetry in the universe is expected to be nearly flat because of the tremendous distances involved; therefore it may not be directly measurable with current technology. Linear decelerations of groups and clusters are caused by interaction between, within, and among galactic clusters.
When specific galaxies are observed repeatedly over a sufficient number of decades, observations will prove asymmetry; and it will then be undeniable that galactic clusters are in fact decelerating apart. There continues to be decelerating growth occurring on our side of the outward advancing deflagration front. Outward linear velocities will continue to be consumed behind the deflagration front via galactic clustering and vortexing. Deceleration stream lines are illustrated and labeled in Figure 10.1 of Reference, and also in the following figure 4. Two Hubble lines are superimposed over deceleration lines and reveal H# lines to be gradients across the lines of deceleration. Continuing growth of the universe means farther separation of galaxies with time; growth will continue 'ad infinitum', even if the primordial matter becomes depleted.
Close behind the D wave there are tremendous amounts of new orbiting, coalescence, and other transfers from linear momentum. More red-shift vs distance indicates decelerations are slowing.
Observable Universe diameter & Our distance to the center
It is assumed the universe is spherically symmetrical about the origin (location of the first positronium annihilation that started the chain reaction) of the deflagration wave that produces all of the corporeal matter in the universe. Evaluating the asymmetry from our location is expected to define how far we are from the universe's origin. Estimating our location in the universe was first attempted by comparison of modern times Hubble number measurements (Between years 1980 and 2000) by knowledgeable, reputable astronomers. The largest H# (117) represents higher velocities vs distances at a given direction and the smallest H# (50), represents the lower velocities vs distances in its direction.
Since the highest and lowest H#s were measured in opposite (approximately) directions, they were expected to reveal the asymmetry of the universe from our vantage point. The largest H# is towards the closest proximity of the deflagration wave and the smaller H# is towards the farthest distance to the deflagration wave; therefore the difference should indicate different deceleration rates. Graphing these Hubble lines Figure 10.3) shows us where we are relative to the center of the universe. Since the deflagration wave travels at the speed of light (c), the Hubble line extended to 'c' on the graph should show the distance to where the deflagration wave is, or appears to be, today.
Excerpted from Model of the Universe by Bobby McGehee Copyright © 2010 by Bobby McGehee. Excerpted by permission.
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Table of Contents
Why we need this credible New Model!....................1
1. Milestone Bar Chart History of the Universe....................2
Age of the Universe (Understandable History of Time)....................2
2. Acceleration vs Deceleration; Asymmetry....................8
Variations, as predicted, prove we are not at the universe's center and galaxies are decelerating apart....................8
Diameter of the observable Universe....................12
Our distance to the center....................12
Supernovae Ia Red-Shift (~2005); Z = < 1....................16
Supernovae Ia Red-Shift (~2007); Z = 1.755 (> 50 to ~62% of c)....................17
Voids ... significance and their origin....................19
3. Angular momentum; Vortexing and Galactic Clusters....................24
Large scale vortexing; Momentum conservation....................24
Abell (ACO) Clusters....................25
Asymmetry, Galaxy Cluster size and direction....................30
4. Production of the Universe and Continuing Growth....................36
Origin of Matter: Why the NUT makes more sense....................38
Big Bang theory....................39
Laws Of Physics Model; Origin of Universe....................43
Processes / Thickness....................47
Primordial Matter Concept....................49
Matter / Antimatter Annihilations....................49
5. Cosmic Background Radiation....................51
6. Knowledge of the Universe....................55
7. Ongoing Studies better define New Universe Model....................58