NK Cells and Other Natural Effector Cells

NK Cells and Other Natural Effector Cells

by Ronald B. Herberman

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Overview

NK Cells and Other Natural Effector Cells reviews the state of knowledge on NK cells and other natural effector mechanisms. The coverage of immune effector systems ranges from basic studies on their nature, regulation, and mechanisms of action to important practical issues such as their role in host resistance, their modulation by therapeutic intervention, and alterations of their activity in disease.
The book is organized into 12 parts. Parts I and II examine the characteristics of NK cells and other natural effector cells, respectively. Part III focuses on the cell lineage of NK and related effector cells, providing evidence for or against T cell lineage, for or against macrophage lineage, and for or against other or separate lineage. Part IV deals with the genetics of natural resistance in the mouse and rat. Part V presents studies on the regulation of cytotoxic activity. Part VI examines the specificity of natural effector cells, covering the nature of target cell structures and the nature of recognition receptors in effector cells. Part VII discusses the cytotoxicity by cultured lymphoid cells while Part VIII turns to the mechanisms of cytotoxicity. Part IX deals with natural cell-mediated reactivity against primary tumor cells and against non-tumor targets. Part X examines NK cell tumors or the presence of NK cells at the site of tumor growth. Part XI presents clinical studies with natural effector cells. Part XII provides evidence for in vivo reactivity of natural effector cells.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780323139717
Publisher: Elsevier Science
Publication date: 12/02/2012
Sold by: Barnes & Noble
Format: NOOK Book
Pages: 1566
File size: 19 MB
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Table of Contents

Contributors


Preface


I. Characteristics of NK Cells


A. Large Granular Lymphocytes


1. Human


2. Other Species


B. Characterization by Surface Markers


1. Human


2. Other Species


II. Characteristics of Other Natural Effector Cells


A. Human


Natural Killer Cells are Distinct from Lectin-Dependent Effector Cells in Man as Determined by the Two-Target Conjugate Single Cell Assay


Virus Dependent Natural Cytotoxicity (VDCC) of Human Lymphocytes


Natural Cytotoxicity of Human Monocytes


Natural Cytotoxicity of Human Mononuclear Phagocytes: Role of Contaminating Endotoxin and Expression by Different Macrophage Populations


B. Mouse


Natural Killer Cell Subsets


Solid Tumors are Killed by NK and NC Cell Populations: Interferon Inducing Agents Do Not Augment NC Cell Activity under NK Activating Conditions


NC Cells Do Not Express NK-Associated Cell Surface Antigens and are Not Culture Activated NK Cells


Enrichment and Characterization of Effector Populations Mediating NK, NC, ADCC, and Spontaneous Macrophage Cytotoxicity in Murine Peritoneal Exúdate Cell Preparations


Further Studies on the Cytostatic Activity Mediated by Murine Splenocytes


III. Cell Lineage of NK and Related Effector Cells


A. Evidence for or Against T Cell Lineage


Cell Lineage of NK Cell: Evidence for T Cell Lineage


Immunoregulation of Mouse NK Activity by the Serum Thymic Factor (FTS)


Distinctive Characteristics between Splenic Natural Killer Cells and Prothymocytes


Hypothesis on the Development of Natural Killer Cells and Their Relationship to T Cells


Comment on the Nomenclature of Lymphocyte Mediated Cytotoxic Effects


B. Evidence for or against Macrophage Lineage


Cells with Natural Killer Activity are Eliminated by Treatment with Monoclonal Specific Anti-Macrophage Antibody plus Complement


Effect of Anti-HLA and Anti-Beta-2 Microglobulin Antisera on the Natural Cytotoxic Activity of Human NK Cells and Monocytes


C. Evidence for or against Other or Separate Lineage


Could Human Large Granular Lymphocytes Represent a New Cell Lineage?


Natural Killer Cells: A Separate Lineage?


Natural Killer Activity in Mast Cell-Deficient W/WV Mice


IV. Genetics of Natural Resistance


A. Mouse


NK-Activity Against YAC-1 is Regulated by Two H-2 Associated Genes


Genetic Control of NC Activity in the Mouse: Three Genes Located in Chromosome


Approaches to the Genetic Analysis of Natural Resistance In Vivo


The Beige (bg) Gene Influences the Development of Autoimmune Disease in SB/Le Male Mice


NK Cell Activation in SM/J Mice


Chromosome 1 Locus: A Major Regulator of Natural Resistance to Intracellular Pathogens


B. Rat


Genetic Variation in Natural Killer (NK) Activity in the Rat


V. Regulation of Cytotoxic Activity


A. Ontogeny of NK Cells


Ontogeny of Nk-1+ Natural Killer Cells


Marrow Dependence of Natural Killer Cells


Age-Independent Natural Killer Cell Activity in Murine Peripheral Blood


Ontogenic Development of Porcine NK and K Cells


B. Augmentation


1. Interferon or Interferon Inducers


2. Other Augmenting Agents


C. Inhibition or Suppression of Activity


1. Suppressor Cells


2. Other Mechanisms


D. Accessory Cells for Cytotoxic Effector Cells


Regulation of Human NK Activity against Adherent Tumor Target Cells by Monocyte Subpopulations, Interleukin-1, and Interferons


E. Production of Interferon by NK Cells


Production of Interferon by Human Natural Killer Cells in Response to Mitogens, Viruses and Bacteria


Interferon Production and Natural Cytotoxicity by Human Lymphocytes Fractionated by Percoll Density Gradient Centrifugation


VI. Specificity of Natural Effector Cells


A. Nature of Target Cell Structures


Recognition Structures for Natural Killer Cells on Human Lymphocytes: A Panel Study


Specificity of Fresh and Activated Human Cytotoxic Lymphocytes


Fractionation of Natural Killer Cells on Target Cell Monolayers


Non-NK Leukocytes Demonstrate NK-Patterned Binding


Target Cell Recognition by Natural Killer and Natural Cytotoxic Cells


The Relationship between NK and Natural Antibody Target Structures


Effect of Sodium Butyrate and Hemin on NK Sensivity of K562 Cells


Analysis of Differentiation Events Causing Changes in NK Cell Tumor-Target Sensitivity


Specificity of Natural Killer (NK) Cells: Nature of Target Cell Structures


Effects of Interferon and Tumor Promoter, 12-0-Tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate, on the Sensitivity of Trophoblast Cells to Natural Killer Cell Activity


Serological Approaches to the Elucidation of NK Target Structures


Surface Sialic Acid of Tumor Cells Inversely Correlates with Susceptibility to Natural Killer Cell Mediated Lysis


Inhibition of Spontaneous and Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity Using Mono- and Oligosaccharides


B. Nature of Recognition Receptors on Effector Cells


The Use of a Monoclonal Antibody to Analyse Human NK Cell Function


VII. Cytotoxicity by Cultured Lymphoid Cells


A. Short Term Cultures


Heterogeneity of MLC-Generated NK-Like Cells


Stimulation of Lymphocytes with Allogeneic Normal Cells and Autologous Lymphoblastoid Cell Lines: Distinction between NK-Like Cells and Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes by Monoclonal Antibodies


Generation of Lytic Potential in Mixed Cultures and Its Modification by IFN-α


Cultured Natural Killer Cells


Spontaneous Monocyte Mediated Cytotoxicity in Man: Evidence for T Helper Activity


B. Continued Cultures and Clones


Cultures of Purified Human Natural Killer Cells


Lytic Effect of T-Cell Cultures against Tumor Biopsy Cells and K562


Natural Killer Cell-Like Cytotoxicity Mediated by Herpesvirus Transformed Marmoset T Cell Lines


Cloned Cell Lines with Natural Killer Activity


Characterization of Cloned Murine Cell Lines Having High Cytolytic Activity against YAC-I Targets


Induction of NK-Like Anti-Tumor Reactivity in Vitro and in Vivo by IL-2


Cloned Lines of Mouse Natural Killer Cells


Clonal Analysis of Human Natural Killer Cells


Continuous Culture of Human NK-T Cell Clones


Permanently Growing Murine Cell Clones with NK-Like Activities


Natural Killer Activity in Cloned IL-2 Dependent Allospecific Lymphoid Populations


Regulation by Interferon and T Cells of IL-2-Dependent Growth of NK Progenitor Cells: A Limiting Dilution Analysis


Natural Cytotoxic Activity of Mouse Spleen Cell Cultures Maintained with Interleukin-3


VIII. Mechanisms of Cytotoxicity


A. Role of Proteases


Evidence for Proteases with Specificity of Cleavage at Aromatic Amino Acids in Human Natural Cell-Mediated Cytotoxicity


The Role of Neutral Serine Proteases in the Mechanism of Tumor Cell Lysis by Human Natural Killer Cells


The Role of Surface Associated Proteases in Human NK Cell Mediated Cytotoxicity. Evidence Suggesting a Mechanism by which Concealed Surface Enzymes Become Exposed during Cytolysis


The Relationship between Secretion of a Novel Cytolytic Protease and Macrophage-Mediated Tumor Cytotoxicity


B. Role of Phospholipids


Phospholipid Metabolism during NK Cell Activity: Possible Role for Transmethylation and Phospholipase A2 Activation in Recognition and Lysis


C. Role of Soluble Mediators


Role of Natural Killer Cytotoxic Factors (NKCF) in the Mechanism of NK Cell Mediated Cytotoxicity


Role of Lymphotoxins in Natural Cytotoxicity


Carbohydrate Receptors in Natural Cell-Mediated Cytotoxicity


D. Other Mechanisms or Information on Mechanisms


Cellular Secretion Associated with Human Natural Killer Cell Activity


Mechanism of NK Cell Lysis


Mechanisms of NK Activation: Models to Study Induction of Lysis and Enhancement of Lytic Efficiency


Augmented Binding of Tumor Cells by Activated Murine Macrophages and Its Relevance to Tumor Cytotoxicity


The Role of Free Oxygen Radicals in the Activation of the NK Cytolytic Pathway


Cell Surface Thiols in Human Natural Cell-Mediated Cytotoxicity


Activated Macrophage Mediated Cytotoxicity for Transformed Target Cells


The Uropod as an Integral and Specialized Structure of Large Granular Lymphocytes


Morphological Characteristics of Lymphocyte-Target Cell Interactions and Their Relations to Cytolytic Activity in the Human NK System


IX. Natural Cell-Mediated Reactivity Against Primary Tumor Cells and Against Non-Tumor Targets


A. Primary Tumor Cells as Targets


Cytotoxic and Cytostatic Activity of Human Large Granular Lymphocytes against Allogeneic Tumor Biopsy Cells and Autologous EBV Infected B Lymphocytes


Association of Human Natural Killer Cell Activity against Human Primary Tumors with Large Granular Lymphocytes


Auto-Tumor Lytic Potential of Lymphocytes Separated from Human Solid Tumors


Natural Cell-Mediated Cytotoxicity against Spontaneous Mouse Mammary Tumors


B. Normal Cells as Targets


Natural Killing of Hematopoietic Cells


Human Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cells as Effectors and Targets of Natural Killing


C. Parasites as Targets


Natural Killer (NK) Cell Activity against Extracellular Forms of Trypanosoma cruzi


Mechanisms of Natural Macrophage Cytotoxicity against Protozoa


D. Fungi as Targets


In Vitro Effects of Natural Killer (NK) Cells on Cryptococcus neoformans


X. Possible NK Cell Tumors or Presence of NK Cells at Site of Tumor Growth


A. Human Tumors


NK Activity of Tumor Infiltrating and Lymph Node Lymphocytes in Human Pulmonary Tumors


Natural Killer Activity in Human Ovarian Tumors


Natural Cytotoxic Effectors in Human Tumours and Tumour Draining Nodes


Control of Natural Cytotoxicity in the Regional Lymph Node in Breast Cancer


Leukemic Blasts as Effectors in Natural Killing and Antibody Dependent Cytotoxicity Assay


B. Other Species


Natural Killer Cell Activity Associated with Spontaneous and Transplanted Reticulum Cell Neoplasms


Reticulum Cell Sarcomas of SJL/J Mice: Pre-B Cell Lymphoma with Apparent Natural Killer Cell Function


Identification and Characterization of Large Granular Lymphocyte (LGL) Leukemias in F344 Rats


XI. Clinical Studies with Natural Effector Cells


A. Alterations with Various Diseases


1. Cancer


2. Other Diseases


B. Augmentation of Reactivity by Biological Response Modifiers


1. Interferon


2. Other Agents


C. Depression of Reactivity by Treatments


Effect of Diethylstilbestrol and Estramustine Phosphate (Estracyt®) on Natural Killer Activity in Patients with Carcinoma of the Prostate


XII. Evidence for In Vivo Reactivity of Natural Effector Cells


A. Against Tumors


1. Transplantable Tumors


2. Against Primary Tumors and Possible Role in Surveillance


B. Against Microbial Agents


The Role of NK(HSV-l) Effector Cells in Resistance to Herpesvirus Infections in Man


The Role of Natural Killer Cells and Interferon in Resistance to Murine Cytomegalovirus


Loss of Genetic Resistance to Murine Cytomegalovirus Infection in C3H Mice Treated with 89Sr


Studies of NK Cell Activation and of Interferon Induction after Injection of Mouse Hepatitis Virus Type 3 (MHV3)


Interferon, Natural Killer Cells, and Genetically Determined Resistance of Mice against Herpes Simplex Virus


Natural Resistance against Mouse Hepatitis Virus 3


Induction of Natural Killer Cells and Interferon Production during Infection of Mice with Babesia microti of Human Origin


Natural Cell-Mediated Immunity and Interferon in Malaria and Babesia Infections


Natural Cell-Mediated Resistance in Cryptococcosis


Natural Cell-Mediated Immunity against Bacteria


Genetic and Cellular Mechanisms of Natural Resistance to Intracellular Bacteria


C. Resistance to Transplants of Bone Marrow


The Role of Asialo GM1+ (GA1+) Cells in the Resistance to Transplants of Bone Marrow or Other Tissues


Direct Evidence for the Involvement of Natural Killer Cells in Bone Marrow Transplantation


D. Possible Role in Graft Versus Host Disease


In Vivo Role of NK(HSV-l) in the Induction of Graft versus Host Disease in Bone Marrow Transplant Recipients


Index



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