ISBN-10:
0309104890
ISBN-13:
9780309104890
Pub. Date:
06/28/2007
Publisher:
National Academies Press
Nutrigenomics and Beyond:: Informing the Future - Workshop Summary

Nutrigenomics and Beyond:: Informing the Future - Workshop Summary

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Overview

The integration of biology, genomics, and health has opened the possibility of applying genomics technology to nutrition. In 2001, scientists associated with the Human Genome Project announced the successful mapping of the reference sequence of the human genome. Since then, a body of information has emerged. Genomics and related areas of research have contributed greatly to efforts to understand the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying diet-disease relationships. Integration and application of genetic and genomics technology into nutrition research is, therefore, needed to develop nutrition research programs that are aimed at the prevention and control of chronic disease through genomics-based nutritional interventions. Of interest is the integration of relevant computational methods into nutritional genomics research; the enhancement of tools applicable to systems biology; and the effective dissemination of genomics-derived information to scientists, policy makers, and the interested public.



To address these issues, a workshop was held on June 1 and 2, 2006. The workshop included presentations that were structured around three focus sessions: human genetic variation, epigenetics, and systems biology. A fourth session presented discussions on the implications of nutrigenomics for the future of nutrition science research.



Numerous themes emerged from the workshop presentations. First, nutrigenomics is a complex field because it addresses issues related to multigenetic traits that can be modified by a number of nutritional and other environmental factors. Such complexity presents a challenge to the field; and the ensuing research opportunities will require cooperative work among scientific disciplines and across government, academic, and industrial centers, as well as adequate funding, to be realized.



Additionally, the ability to stretch the limits of conventional research methodologies afforded by new genetic and genomic applications at the level of the individual opens the door to a wealth of potential benefits to areas such as disease prevention and wellness, bearing in mind the necessity of ethical safeguards. This potential, however, must be wisely exploited to avoid the pitfalls of overpromising research results and prematurely setting unrealistic expectations for beneficial outcomes. Finally, careful and rigorous research must be employed to optimize outcomes and assure acceptance by the scientific community. In summary, nutrition science is uniquely poised to serve as the crossroads for many disciplines and, using genomics tools, can bring this knowledge together to better understand and address diet-related chronic diseases and molecular responses to dietary factors.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780309104890
Publisher: National Academies Press
Publication date: 06/28/2007
Pages: 90
Product dimensions: 6.00(w) x 9.00(h) x 0.30(d)

Read an Excerpt

Nutrigenomics and Beyond

Informing the Future - Workshop Summary


By Ann L. Yaktine Robert Pool THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS

Copyright © 2007 National Academy of Sciences
All right reserved.

ISBN: 978-0-309-10489-0



Chapter One

Summary

The integration of biology, genomics, and health has opened the possibility of applying genomics technology to nutrition. In 2001, scientists associated with the Human Genome Project announced the successful mapping of the reference sequence of the human genome. The implications of this achievement to science have been enormous. Since then, a body of information has emerged, including genetic and genomic sequence data, further evidence of nutrient-gene and gene-environment interactions, and the gene expression patterns associated with many chronic diseases. The utility of this information cannot be underestimated. Genomics and related areas of research have contributed greatly to efforts to understand the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying diet-disease relationships.

Integration and application of genetic and genomics technology into nutrition research is, therefore, needed to develop nutrition research programs that are aimed at the prevention and control of chronic disease through genomics-based nutritional interventions. Of interest is the integration of relevant computational methods into nutritional genomics research; the enhancement oftools applicable to systems biology; and the effective dissemination of genomics-derived information to scientists, policy makers, and the interested public. In short, new knowledge, produced from the interface of genetics, genomics, and nutrition science, is key to further developing research to characterize genetic susceptibility to diet-related chronic diseases and molecular responses to dietary factors.

To address these issues, a workshop was held on June 1 and 2, 2006, at the National Academy of Sciences. The workshop included a keynote presentation to provide policy context and challenges, and presentations that were structured around three focus sessions: human genetic variation, epigenetics, and systems biology (see Chapters 1 to 3, respectively). A fourth session (Chapter 4) presented discussions on the implications of nutrigenomics for the future of nutrition science research. The workshop agenda is contained in Appendix A, and Appendix B lists the names and affiliations of the workshop presenters.

Numerous themes emerged from the workshop presentations. First, nutrigenomics is a complex field because it addresses issues related to multigenetic traits that can be modified by a number of nutritional and other environmental factors. For example, more than 25,000 bioactive food components have been identified, although their modes of interaction and duration of activity are among many questions about these compounds that are still unanswered. Such complexity presents a challenge to the field; and the ensuing research opportunities will require cooperative work among scientific disciplines and across government, academic, and industrial centers, as well as adequate funding, to be realized.

Additionally, the ability to stretch the limits of conventional research methodologies afforded by new genetic and genomic applications at the level of the individual opens the door to a wealth of potential benefits to areas such as disease prevention and wellness, bearing in mind the necessity of ethical safeguards. This potential, however, must be wisely exploited to avoid the pitfalls of overpromising research results and prematurely setting unrealistic expectations for beneficial outcomes. Finally, careful and rigorous research must be employed to optimize outcomes and assure acceptance by the scientific community. In summary, nutrition science is uniquely poised to serve as the crossroads for many disciplines and, using genomics tools, can bring this knowledge together to better understand and address diet-related chronic diseases and molecular responses to dietary factors.

(Continues...)



Excerpted from Nutrigenomics and Beyond by Ann L. Yaktine Robert Pool Copyright © 2007 by National Academy of Sciences. Excerpted by permission.
All rights reserved. No part of this excerpt may be reproduced or reprinted without permission in writing from the publisher.
Excerpts are provided by Dial-A-Book Inc. solely for the personal use of visitors to this web site.

Table of Contents

Contents

SUMMARY....................1
THE PROMISE OF NUTRIGENOMICS....................3
Introduction....................3
Keynote Address....................3
Introductory Comments to the Scientific Sessions....................6
1 SCIENTIFIC SESSION I: HUMAN GENETIC VARIATION AND NUTRITION....................7
New Tools for Understanding the Role of Genetic Variation in Health and Disease....................7
Implementation of the Human HapMap Initiative and Large-Scale Polymorphism Studies....................13
Contemporary Nutrigenetics Studies....................15
2 SCIENTIFIC SESSION II: EPIGENETICS....................17
Critical Events: Genomic Programming and Reprogramming....................17
Folate Metabolism and the Fetal Origins of Adult Disease....................23
The Role of Maternal and Infant Nutrition in Genetic Programming and Epigenetics....................27
3 SCIENTIFIC SESSION III: SYSTEMS BIOLOGY....................31
Genetic Networks and Applied Systems Biology....................32
Genome-Scale Reconstruction of the Human Metabolic Network....................36
Emerging Technologies: Nanotechnology....................39
4 IMPLICATIONS FOR THE FUTURE....................41
Issues in Ethics....................41
Science Journalism and the Nutrigenomics Revolution....................45
Needs and Opportunities in the Biomedical Sciences: Interacting Networks....................47
Nutrigenomics: Industry's Perspective....................50
Needs and Opportunities in the Food and Agricultural Sciences....................54
The Economic Potential ofNutrigenomics....................56
Nutrigenomics in Academic and Public Health: How Can We Move the Field Forward?....................58
APPENDIXES A Glossary....................61
B Workshop Agenda....................65
C Speaker Biographies....................69

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