Obesity: A Reference Handbook, 2nd Edition: A Reference Handbook

Obesity: A Reference Handbook, 2nd Edition: A Reference Handbook

by Judith S. Stern, Alexandra Kazaks

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Obesity has reached epidemic proportions in countries like the United States. This book provides a comprehensive summary of obesity in America and around the world, discussing the causes and proposing ways to help stem the tide and to help those who are overweight.

• Provides clear, easy-to-understand, and useful information for general readers who want to learn more about the history and current events concerning obesity

• Includes a Perspectives chapter that enables readers to hear voices from a range of individuals who are concerned with obesity, such as medical professionals and fat acceptance activists

• Presents real-world strategies and solutions that readers can apply—and benefit from—in their own lives

• Includes excerpts of key documents from the National Institutes of Health; the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; and the U.S. Surgeon General that inform how we as a society view, prevent, and treat obesity

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781440838057
Publisher: ABC-CLIO, Incorporated
Publication date: 10/13/2015
Series: Contemporary World Issues
Sold by: Barnes & Noble
Format: NOOK Book
Pages: 362
File size: 3 MB

About the Author

Judith S. Stern, ScD, RD, is distinguished professor emeritus in nutrition and internal medicine at University of California, Davis.

Alexandra Kazaks, PhD, RDN, CDE, is a professor at Bastyr University in Seattle, WA, where she teaches a wide range of nutrition-related classes to undergraduates, graduate students, medical professionals, and the general public.

Table of Contents

List of Tables xiii

List of Figures xv

Preface xvii

1 Background and History 1

Defining and Measuring Overweight and Obesity 4

Indirect Measuring Methods 4

Limitations and Shortcomings 10

Assessing Percentage of Body Fat 11

Direct Measuring Methods 12

Obesity Trends in the United States 14

Obesity as a National Health Problem 16

Why Are We Overweight? 17

Factors That Contribute to Obesity 19

Increased Energy Intake 19

Distorted Portion Sizes 20

Drinking More Calories 23

Conveniently Available Food 23

Physical Inactivity 24

Physical Activity and Short-term Weight Loss 25

Metabolic and Genetic Contributions 26

Can We Blame Obesity on Our Genes? 27

Ways Genes Contribute to Obesity 28

Consequences of Overweight and Obesity 29

Discrimination 31

Economic Consequences 32

We Live in an Obesogenic Environment 33

References 34

2 Problems, Controversies, and Solutions 41

Is Obesity a Disease? 41

Is Obesity an Epidemic? 45

Treatment of Obesity: Fighting the Battle of the Bulge 49

Diet Foods 56

Adequate Nutrition Labeling 57

Physical Activity 59

Behavioral Strategies for Responding to an Obesogenic Environment 60

Long-term Success 62

Medications 63

Red Flag Campaign 67

Dietary Fiber 68

Prescription Drugs 69

Obesity (Bariatric) Surgery 73

Other Invasive Treatments for Obesity 77

How Does the Health Care System Deal with Obesity? 78

Why Can't We Just Prevent Obesity? 80

Conclusions 81

References 82

3 Worldwide Perspective 89

Multinational Scope of Overweight and Obesity 89

The Weight Gap: Undernutrition Coexists with Obesity 90

Obesity Becoming More Common among Children 91

Childhood WeightCategories Not Clear 92

Changing Lifestyle and Economic Policies 93

Globalization of Food Production and Marketing 93

Move to Cities Reduces Physical Activity 94

Gender Effects on Obesity 95

Obesogenic Environment's Influence on Children 96

Global Health Risks Associated with Childhood Obesity 97

Managing Childhood Overweight and Obesity 98

Medical Treatment 99

Dietary Interventions 100

How to Choose the Best Diet for Children 100

Pharmacological Treatment 102

Surgical Treatment 102

Health Care Delivery Systems 103

Prevention 103

Coordinated Strategies for Childhood Obesity Prevention 104

Global Collaboration to Combat Childhood Obesity 104

Goals for Government, Schools, Media and Marketing, Parents, and Researchers 106

Conclusion 119

References 119

4 Chronology 125

References 144

5 Biographical Sketches 147

S. Daniel Abraham 147

David Allison 148

Arne Astrup 149

Robert C. Atkins 149

Richard L. Atkinson 150

George Blackburn 151

Steven N. Blair 151

Claude Bouchard 152

George A. Bray 153

Jane E. Brody 154

Kelly Brownell 154

Henry Buckwald 155

Paul F. Campos 156

William J. Clinton 157

Jenny Craig 157

William H. Dietz 157

Adam Drewnowski 158

Johanna Dwyer 159

Katherine M. Flegal 159

Jared Fogle 160

Jeffrey M. Friedman 161

M. R. C. Greenwood 161

Barbara Hansen 162

Marion M. Hetherington 163

James O. Hill 163

Hippocrates 164

Jules Hirsch 164

W. P. T. James 165

Robin B. Kanarek 166

Janet C. King 166

Ahmed Kissebah 167

C. Everett Koop 168

John Kral 169

Ray Kroc 169

Shiriki Kumanyika 170

Jack LaLanne 171

Antoine Lavoisier 172

Maimonides 172

Jean Mayer 173

Barbara J. Moore 173

Jean Nidetch 174

Dean Ornish 175

Xavier Pi-Sunyer 176

Nathan Pritikin 176

Barbara J. Rolls 177

Wim H. M. Saris 177

Ethan Allen Sims 178

Sachiko St. Jeor 179

Judith S. Stern 180

Albert J. Stunkard 181

Oprah Winfrey 181

Rena Wing 182

References 183

6 Data and Documents 187

Data 187

Documents 198

Clinical Guidelines on the Identification, Evaluation, and Treatment of Overweight and Obesity in Adults: The Evidence Report 198

"The Surgeon General's Call to Action to Prevent and Decrease Overweight and Obesity" 210

Strategic Plan for NIH Obesity Research 222

References 231

7 Directory of Agencies, Programs, and Organizations 233

Government Agencies and National Programs and Initiatives 233

International Agencies and Organizations 243

Nonprofit, Professional, and Trade Organizations 247

References 267

8 Selected Print and Nonprint Resources 269

Books 270

Reference Works 270

Scientific Works 271

Popular Books 272

Reports 277

Guidelines 282

Journals and Magazines 284

Newsletters 286

Web Sites 289

General Web Sites 289

Interactive for General Population 291

Interactive for Children and Adolescents 292

Movies 296

Databases 297

Food and Nutrition Experts 301

Calculators and Counters 301

Glossary 303

Index 309

About the Authors 323

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