Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is a medical disorder defined as a persistent pattern of negativistic, defiant, disobedient and hostile behavior toward influential figures that continues for at least 6 months and is not due to a mood or psychotic disorder.
Oppositional defiant disorder is a pattern of disobedient, hostile, and defiant behavior toward authority figures.
Possible risk factors for ODD are:
1. Temperament: a child who has a temperament that has problem controlling emotions, such as being highly emotionally reactive to circumstances or having difficulty accepting frustration
2. Parenting issues: child who has abuse or neglect, harsh or inconsistent discipline, or a lack of parental control
3. Other family issues: a child who lives with parent or family conflict or has a parent with a mental health or substance use disorder
Causative factors may be due to:
1. Genetics: a child's normal character or temperament and possibly neurobiological distinguishing in the way nerves and the brain function
2. Environment: disorders with parenting that may have a lack of supervision, inconsistent or harsh discipline, or abuse or neglect
DSM-5 criteria for diagnosis of ODD are both emotional and behavioral symptoms.
1. Angry and irritable mood:
a. Often losing temper
b. Often sensitive or easily annoyed by others
c. Often irate and resentful
2. Argumentative and defiant behavior:
a. Often disagrees with adults or people in authority
b. Often aggressively defies or refuses to comply with adults' requests or rules
c. Often intentionally annoys people
d. Often censures others for his or her mistakes or misbehavior
a. Often spiteful or vindictive
b. At least twice in the past six months
ODD can differ in severity:
1. Mild. Symptoms happen only in one setting, such as only at home, school, work or with peers.
2. Moderate. Some symptoms happen in at least two settings.
3. Severe. Some symptoms happen in three or more settings.
For some children, symptoms may first be observed only at home, but with time widen to other settings, such as school and with friends.
Treating oppositional defiant disorder normally requires several forms of psychotherapy and training for the child as well as for parents.
Treatment often persists several months or longer.
Medicines alone normally are not used for ODD unless another disorder co-occurs.
If the child has concurrent disorders, principally ADHD, medicines may help considerably improve symptoms.
The foundations of treatment for ODD normally are:
1. Parent training.
2. Parent-child interaction therapy (PCIT).
3. Individual and family therapy.
4. Cognitive disorder-solving training.
5. Social skills training
As part of parent training, the parent may study how to control the child's behavior by:
1. Giving clear instructions and following through with suitable results when needed
2. Identifying and praising the child's good behaviors and positive features to produce desired behaviors
Learning more efficacious parenting skills is important for the child to improve.
When parents are not able or not willing to alter, because of their own emotional or other issues, treatment may not be possible.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Chapter 1 Oppositional Defiant Disorder
Chapter 2 Causes
Chapter 3 Symptoms
Chapter 4 Diagnosis
Chapter 5 Treatment
Chapter 6 Prognosis
Chapter 7 ADHD
Chapter 8 Learning Difficulty
Any parent who has teenagers will recall how rebellious and defiant they are at that age group.
A child with Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is very different in behavior.
They are angry and defiant like all teenagers, but also argumentative, irritable at the tiniest provocation and worse still very vindictive and spiteful to friends, teachers, parents and any one in authority.
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About the Author
Medical doctor since 1972. Started Kee Clinic in 1974 at 15 Holland Dr #03-102, relocated to 36 Holland Dr #01-10 in 2009. Did my M.Sc (Health Management ) in 1991 and Ph.D (Healthcare Administration) in 1993. Dr Kenneth Kee is still working as a family doctor at the age of 65. However he has reduced his consultation hours to 3 hours in the morning and 2 hours in the afternoon. He first started writing free blogs on medical conditions seen in the clinic in 2007 on http://kennethkee.blogspot.com. His purpose in writing these simple guides was for the health education of his patients which is also his dissertation for his Ph.D (Healthcare Administration). He then wrote an autobiolographical account of his journey as a medical student to family doctor on his other blog afamilydoctorstale.blogspot.com. This autobiolographical account “A Family Doctor’s Tale” was combined with his early “A Simple Guide to Medical Conditions” into a new Wordpress Blog “A Family Doctor’s Tale” on http://ken-med.com. From which many free articles from the blog was taken and put together into 550 amazon kindle books and some into Smashwords.com eBooks. He apologized for typos and spelling mistakes in his earlier books. He will endeavor to improve the writing in futures. Some people have complained that the simple guides are too simple. For their information they are made simple in order to educate the patients. The later books go into more details of medical conditions. The first chapter of all my ebooks is always taken from my blog A Simple Guide to Medical Conditions which was started in 2007 as a simple educational help to my patients on my first blog http://kennethkee.blogspot.com. The medical condition was described simply and direct to the point. Because the simple guide as taken from the blog was described as too simple, I have increased the other chapters to include more detailed description of the illness, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment. As a result there are the complaints by some readers of constant repetitions of the same contents but in detail and fairly up to date. He has published 550 eBooks on various subjects on health, 1 autobiography of his medical journey, another on the autobiography of a Cancer survivor, 2 children stories and one how to study for his nephew and grand-daughter. The purpose of these simple guides is to educate patient on health conditions and not meant as textbooks. He does not do any night duty since 2000 ever since Dr Tan had his second stroke. His clinic is now relocated to the Bouna Vista Community Centre. The 2 units of his original clinic are being demolished to make way for a new Shopping Mall. He is now doing some blogging and internet surfing (bulletin boards since the 1980's) starting with the Apple computer and going to PC. All the PC is upgraded by himself from XT to the present Pentium duo core. The present Intel i7 CPU is out of reach at the moment because the CPU is still expensive. He is also into DIY changing his own toilet cistern and other electric appliance. His hunger for knowledge has not abated and he is a lifelong learner. The children have all grown up and there are 2 grandchildren who are even more technically advanced than the grandfather where mobile phones are concerned.