This manual is the first of its sort describing the use of the new portable digital microscope for analysis of archaeological ceramics in the field or in the laboratory. It is presented like a geological atlas with a description of the most common minerals and lithic fragments found in ancient ceramic pastes to help archaeologists identify what they see under the microscope. Identification of manufacture and technological features are also addressed. An analysis protocol is proposed, along with suggestions for granulometric and digital image analyses to help with the constitution of groups of similar composition and paste texture. The manual is abundantly illustrated with color pictures of archaeological and ethnographic ceramic pastes as well as raw materials. It is a reference book for all involved in the analysis of archaeological ceramics and a major tool to help study, classify and choose the best fragments for archaeometric analysis.