President Obama's words are one of the lasting legacies of his presidential campaign and administration.
In Power in Words, distinguished historian and civil rights activist Mary Frances Berry and former presidential speechwriter Josh Gottheimer introduce Obama’s most memorable speeches, from his October 2002 speech against the war in Iraq and his November 2008 election-night victory speech to “A More Perfect Union,” his March 2008 response to the Reverend Wright controversy, and lesser-known but revealing speeches, such as one given in Nairobi, Kenya, in August 2006.
For each speech, Berry and Gottheimer add a rich introduction that includes political analysis, provides insight and historical context, and features commentary straight from the speechwriters themselves—including Jon Favreau, Obama’s chief speechwriter, and several other Obama campaign writers. Compelling and enduring, Power in Words delivers the behind-the-scenes account of Obama’s rhetorical legacy and is a collection to relish for years to come.
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About the Author
Mary Frances Berry is the Geraldine R. Segal Professor of American Social Thought and professor of history at the University of Pennsylvania, and the author of nine books. The recipient of thirty-three honorary degrees, she has been chair of the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights, is a regular contributor to Politico, and has appeared on Real Time with Bill Maher, Anderson Cooper 360, The Daily Show, Tavis Smiley, and PBS's NewsHour.
Josh Gottheimer was presidential speechwriter and special assistant to President Bill Clinton; appears on MSNBC, Fox News, and CNN as a political analyst; edited Ripples of Hope: Great American Civil Rights Speeches; and is executive president of the global PR firm Burson-Marsteller.
Theodore Sorensen (1928-2010) was former special counsel and adviser to President John F. Kennedy and a widely published author on the presidency and foreign affairs.
Read an Excerpt
It’s fair to say that when it comes to politics, there are few things Americans agree on. That said, there is one thing that’s not debatable: Barack Obama can deliver one hell of a campaign speech.
Even those who don’t agree with his policies can recall the first time they heard Obama, the candidate, thunder away to a crowd of adoring listeners. For many, the first time they heard Obama was his call for hope and unity at the 2004 Democratic National Convention; for others, it was the first time they heard his now-famous mantra, “Yes, we can”—with its roots in Cesar Chavez’s 1972 “Sí, se puede” campaign—on the evening of the New Hampshire primary. There are few politicians in American history who have used the stage more effectively.
You may have a different view of Obama the president and of his rhetoric in the White House. You may not agree with his policies, or you may believe, like some, that he has overused the presidential podium— or that his deeds have fallen short of his words. You may believe that his signature promises of change and political unity have given way to traditional stagnation and partisanship.
We will leave it to history, and to another author, to judge his presidency, because one thing is clear: the rules of governing are much different than those of campaigning.
Presidents have different agendas from candidates. Candidates must convince the public to vote for them, and the press to adore them; a candidate’s agenda is not to convince the Congress or the special interests to pass legislation. They are firing up a crowd at a rally of screaming supporters, not delivering a sober speech from the Oval Office on an impending war.
Presidents, on the other hand, have to be much more careful with their rhetoric; a single word can impact financial markets and foreign affairs. They have to push their budget policies day in and day out, even if it’s tedious and the public is bored stiff. As Peter Baker wrote in the New York Times, “Speechmaking as a president often presents a sharper challenge than it does on the campaign trail. The audience is different, the desired goals are different, the platform is different . . . and pushing policies requires more explanation than inspiration.”
This book covers a period of time that is already inscribed in the annals of politics: the rise and rhetoric of Barack Obama from state senator to president of the United States. It uses eighteen of Obama’s most important political speeches to tell the story of his remarkable ascent and his unprecedented use of the podium to win over a strong majority of the American public. As you will see, it’s not just about the words themselves, but the stories behind them—why they were chosen, how they were shaped, and their impact on the race.
The narrative draws on several sources: first-hand accounts from Obama’s speechwriters, analysis from journalists and others who covered the presidential campaign, and insights from our own experience in presidential politics, policymaking, and speechwriting.
You will meet the five speechwriters who helped Obama craft and communicate the “change” message he embodied and get a behind-thescenes view of their fast-paced world of swigging Red Bull and pulling all-nighter writing sessions. What will be clear throughout the book is that Barack Obama and his writers understood the impact his words could have on the race and on his ultimate success.
The title itself, Power in Words, comes from Barack Obama’s presidential announcement speech in February 2007 in Springfield, Illinois, when he said, “The life of a tall, gangly, self-made Springfield lawyer tells us that a different future is possible. He tells us that there is power in words.” Obama uttered those words only a few feet from where his political hero, Abraham Lincoln, a former Illinois state legislator and trial lawyer, declared his aspirations to the highest office in the land.
“Power in words” is not a direct quote from Lincoln. Obama was paraphrasing Lincoln, who understood that words mattered; he was fastidious about the language he used to communicate with the country.
Lincoln understood the power of words like few of his contemporaries— he knew that his rhetoric was one of the most powerful tools of persuasion he possessed. He was not particularly verbose: it was about the quality, not quantity, of his words. There was a purpose, a thoughtfulness behind every word he delivered, and history has judged his rhetoric kindly.
Lincoln’s Gettysburg Address was only 278 words, but it is viewed as a singular moment in repairing the disjointed union. We all remember the opening: “Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent, a new nation, conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal.” His celebrated Emancipation Proclamation was only 696 words; it took less than five minutes to deliver. In fact, the entire speech fits on the wall of the Lincoln Memorial. Could you imagine that happening today?
Lincoln’s Second Inaugural Address was only 703 words in length and 505 of those were one-syllable words. In advance of the speech, the Associated Press reported that it would be “brief—not exceeding, probably a column in length.” They were about right.
Our sixteenth president spent days writing, rewriting, and finetuning with the draft on foolscap, a type of paper that was thirteen by seventeen inches long; according to biographer Ronald White, Lincoln kept it in a drawer near him because “when he knew he was to present an important speech, he toiled far ahead.” He usually wrote his speeches “first with pencil on stiff sheets of white pasteboard or boxboard. . . . He laid the sheets . . . on his knee. He crossed out words and edited until the text was ready to copy as the final version of the speech to be delivered.”
Lincoln weighed carefully every word of his Second Inaugural, which was ultimately delivered on March 4, 1865, with the country still mired down in the Civil War. He understood that it would take a remarkable public campaign to convince the country to continue the bloodiest war in history, against their fellow citizens, to outlaw slavery.
Obama, too, recognized the impact he had on the stump. When he spoke about hope or change, or when he was forced to address himself to the race issue, the American people listened intently. He knew he had to choose his words wisely and that he could persuade, and dissuade, in an instant.
According to White, Lincoln was mocked early in his presidency for primarily to be heard. He crafted his speeches as much for the ear as for the eye” and, as noted, was careful with his diction. According to Lincoln, “In my present position . . . every word is so closely noted that it will not do to make trivial ones. I have kept silent for the reason I supposed it was particularly proper that I should do so.” Jeffrey K. Tulis explains in The Rhetorical Presidency, “Lincoln indicates that ‘silence’ will enhance the persuasive power of those speeches that he does deliver.”
Obama was not the first presidential candidate to learn from Lincoln. Theodore Roosevelt coined the phrase “bully pulpit” because he believed that he could use the presidential podium and the direct communication with the American public it provided to “bully” Congress into enacting his agenda. Franklin Roosevelt likewise was a master communicator who seized the radio airwaves, then a brand-new medium, to allay the nation’s fears during the Great Depression and sell his ambitious New Deal program. John Kennedy used the stump and a new political tool, television, to help win the presidency and the hearts of millions of Americans. Decades later, Ronald Reagan earned the moniker the Great Communicator for his masterful use of the public stage, using it to unify the country behind his agenda. Bill Clinton took a page out of the Reagan playbook as the Great Empathizer; few politicians felt more comfortable, and were more popular, on the world stage.
Thus, compared to his successors, Lincoln hardly ever used the bully pulpit to go over the heads of Congress and address the American people directly. In the eighteenth century, it wasn’t customary for presidents to speak directly and with frequency to the American people. Tulis reported that our earliest presidents spent most of their time working behind closed doors with Congress and their cabinets. Partly this was an issue of logistics. Even if presidents had wanted to reach the masses, the tools required to do so didn’t exist; there were no twenty-four-hour cable news stations, satellite radio stations, Internet news and gossip Web sites, or armies of citizen-journalist bloggers such as those that patrol the Web today. So instead, politicians targeted their communication to the legislators and to a small, elite population who had regular access to newspapers.
Table of Contents
Foreword by Ted Sorensen
1 Speech against the Iraq War Resolution
October 2, 2002 l Federal Plaza, Chicago, Illinois
2 Keynote Address at the 2004 Democratic National Convention
July 27, 2004 l FleetCenter, Boston, Massachusetts
3 United States Senate Victory Speech
November 2, 2004 l Hyatt Ballroom, Chicago, Illinois
4 John Lewis’s Sixty-fifth Birthday Gala
February 21, 2005 l Georgia Tech Hotel and Conference Center, Atlanta, Georgia
5 Knox College Commencement Address
June 4, 2005 l Galesburg, Illinois
6 Call to Renewal Keynote Address
June 28, 2006 l National City Church, Washington, D.C.
7 “An Honest Government, A Hopeful Future”
August 28, 2006 l University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya
8 Presidential Announcement Speech
February 10, 2007 l Old State Capitol, Springfield, Illinois
9 Iowa Jefferson-Jackson Dinner
November 10, 2007 l Veterans Memorial Auditorium, Des Moines, Iowa
10 Night of Iowa Caucus
January 3, 2008 l Hy-Vee Hall, Des Moines, Iowa
11 Night of New Hampshire Primary
January 8, 2008 l Nashua South High School, Nashua, New Hampshire
12 South Carolina Primary Victory Speech
January 26, 2008 l Columbia Hotel, Columbia, South Carolina
13 Night of Super Tuesday Primaries
February 5, 2008 l Hyatt Regency Hotel, Chicago, Illinois
14 “A More Perfect Union”
March 18, 2008 l National Constitution Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
15 Night of North Carolina and Indiana Primaries
May 6, 2008 l RBC Center, Raleigh, North Carolina
16 “A World That Stands as One”
July 24, 2008 l Victory Column, Tiergarten, Berlin, Germany
17 “The American Promise”: Democratic National Convention
August 28, 2008 l Invesco Field, Denver, Colorado
18 Election Night Victory Speech
November 4, 2008 l Grant Park, Chicago, Illinois
Most Helpful Customer Reviews
Blood clan is a good rp clan
Amazing! Luv it Reflections! - &alpha dder
Cool! Can you make Hazelpaw cross the Scorchclan border and come back woth 3 cats after her? And make Dirtpaw a supe kind cats and he evens says no to Hazelpaw? <p> Mirror
Please read my story at puy. YOURS WAS GREAT and please excuse bad grammer so Isand is Island so stuff like that OK?
I like it! For when a character is speaking, you don't always have to start a new line. Wha l mean is, let's say one character is talking, then you have 'he mewed'. Then, you want more spech. In cases like that, you do not need to start a new line. Some examples are below. Numbers A. and C. are wrong.<br> <p> A. "I think sunsets are so pretty," he sighed. <br> "Don't you?" <br> <p> B. "I think sunsets are so pretty," he sighed. "Don't you?" <br> <p> <p> C. "I hate winter," she shivered. <br> "Snow is so awful and cold." <br> <p> D. "I hate winter," she shivered. "Snow is so awful and cold." <br> <p> <p> Do you ge the point? Now, if it's a different character speaking, then yes, start on a new line! <br> I also wanted to point out that with names, you said Dustpaw and Dirtpaw, as the same cat. Probably a simple mistake! It's alright, l just wanted to point that out. Oh, and being named Dirtpaw is probably and insult, because they call cr<_>ap 'dirt'. :3 Just saying! All in all, great story!
Yay! Did you know i used to rp a cat named crystalsky in sandclan?(a pact clan)
Winterpaw awoke to Harepaw prodding her in the side. <br> "Winterpaw!" The older apprentice meowed. <br> "Have you forgot about your training?" <br> "Dudi sheep ihn?" Winterpaw murmured in response, half-asleep. <br> "What?" <br> Winterpaw blinked open her eyes and yawned. <br> "Did I sleep in?" <br> "Majorly. It's almost sunhigh." The white she-cat bolted out the out the den at Harepaw's response. "Thanks for waking me up!" Jaysoar was pacing imatiently at the camp exit. <br> "Finally! You can't sleep in when you're an apprentice or warrior," Jaysong scolded. Winterpaw's tail drooped in shame and failure. <br> "I know... I failed my first day of training." <br> "Not entirely," her mentor said bightly. <br> "Now follow me, before we miss the whole day!" <p> Jaysong lead Winterpaw into their river-y territory. All Winterpaw could do was stare. This was her first time ever being out of camp. <br> "Will we learn how to fish? How to fight?" She asked eagerly. <br> "Not today. I'll just tour you around WaterClan." Winterpaw's spirit drooped in dissapointment. *At least I'm even getting to do /anything/,* she thought as Jaysong stopped at the first checkpoint. <br> "This is the ScorchClan border. You are to never cross it, you hear me? ScorchClan is known to be selfish, greedy, and bloodthirsty. About half are born rogues, and the other half are cats who traveled countless miles from a rogue Clan called BloodClan. The only reason WaterClan isn't dead and taken over by ScorchClan is because we have almost three times as my cats as they do. When rogues from BloodClan came to join ScorchClan, the Clan destroyed GrassClan and StoneClan, our former fellow Clans. The survivors came to join us in WaterClan. We were the last Clan ScorchClan was going to attack, but by the time the ambush came, they knew it was no hope. We had too many cats. Actually, we have a normal amount. They're the ones with a puny Clan. Let's move on." Her speech sent chills down Winterpaw's spine. <br> "Yes, let's." <p> The rest of the tour was nothing special. Just a bunch of rivers. Dirtpaw and Hazelpaw came bounding up when Jaysong and Winterpaw came back from the tour. <br> "How'd it go?" Dirtpaw asked. Hazelpaw whispered something in her brother's ear. Winterpaw could just barely hear the words. <br> "I don't wanna hang around this albino. Let's go." Dustpaw gave a sad wave of his tail ad fled with his sister. Winterpaw opened her jaw in shock. *Are you just gonna let your sister control your life?* she thought. Now another pair of siblings, Foxpaw and Lilypaw greeted her. <br> "Ignore Hazelpaw," Lilypaw muttered, glancing back at the hazel she-cat. <br> "Yea, those two aren't the nicest cats in camp," Foxpaw added. *Those /two/? But it was only Hazelaw being rude, not Dirtpaw. Is he trying to put a bad perspective of Dirtpaw on me?* <br> "Yea," was all she could think to say. <br> "Hey, let's get some food!" Foxpaw piped up. The thought of a simple mouse made Winterpaw's belly rumble, reminding her that she hasn't eaten all day. Ripplestar wasn't there this time. Instead, Harepaw was picking at a half-eaten trout. <br> "Here, wanna finish?" The gray-brown she-cat sighed. <br> "I'm stuffed." <br> "Sure! Thanks." Winterpaw began to wolf down the rabbit, glancing up to see Foxpaw with a plump water vole in his jaws facing Winterpaw, but he tured away sadly and ate his vole by himself. *Was he looking to share?* But she ignored him. Her mind was already too busy -Reflections