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Power System Engineering: Planning, Design, and Operation of Power Systems and Equipment / Edition 1

Power System Engineering: Planning, Design, and Operation of Power Systems and Equipment / Edition 1

by Juergen Schlabbach, Karl-Heinz Rofalski


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Describing in detail how electrical power systems are planned and designed, this book illustrates the required structures of systems, substations and equipment using international standards and latest computer methods.

Advantages and disadvantages of the different arrangements within switchyards and of the topologies of the power systems are discussed, describing methods to determine the main design parameters of cables, overhead lines, and transformers needed to realize the supply task, as well as the influence of environmental condition son the design and the permissible loading of the equipment. Additionally, general requirements for protection schemes and the main schemes related to the various protection tasks are given.

With its focus on the requirements and procedures of tendering and project contracting, this book enables the reader to adapt the basics of power systems and equipment design to special tasks and engineering projects.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9783527407590
Publisher: Wiley
Publication date: 08/11/2008
Pages: 349
Product dimensions: 6.70(w) x 9.60(h) x 0.90(d)

About the Author

Juergen Schlabbach holds a professorship in power system engineering and renewable energies at the University of Applied Sciences in Bielefeld, Germany. He studied at the Technical University of Darmstadt, where he received his Ph.D. on the topic of digital protection of power systems in 1982. For ten years, he worked in a consulting firm in the field of power system planning, disturbance analysis and design of FACTS. During several years in Arabian and Asian countries he advised local utilities in design, planning and operation of power systems and in organizational matters. Professor Schlabbach's areas of expertise are power system planning, grid connection of renewable energy, EMC and operational training. He also works as independent consulting engineer.

Karl-Heinz Rofalski has been working for more than thirty years as consulting engineer in a world-wide operating German consulting firm in the field of power transmission and distribution. He held the position of project director and manager and gained special knowledge and experience in network planning, design, procedures of tendering and contracting, project monitoring, overall project management in many power projects including assignments in various countries in Africa, the Arab regions and South-East Asia. After graduating from the engineering academy in Kassel/Germany he worked for AEG, one of the manufacturers of electrical equipment, for eight years, and became acquainted with electrical engineering standards and technology. Since 2001 he is active as freelance engineer and independent consultant.

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Table of Contents

Foreword     XI
Introduction     1
Reliability, Security, Economy     1
Legal, Political and Social Restrictions     2
Needs for Power System Planning     4
Basic, Development and Project Planning     5
Basic Planning     5
System Development Planning     5
Project Planning     7
Instruments for Power System Planning     7
Further Tasks of Power System Engineering     10
Power System Load     11
General     11
Load Forecast with Load Increase Factors     12
Load Forecast with Economic Characteristic Data     13
Load Forecast with Estimated Values     14
Load Forecast with Specific Loads and Degrees of Electrification     14
Load Forecast with Standardized Load Curves     17
Typical Time Course of Power System Load     20
Planning Principles and Planning Criteria     23
Planning Principles     23
Basics of Planning     26
Planning Criteria     30
Voltage Band According to IEC 60038     30
Voltage Criteria     31
Loading Criteria     33
Stability Criteria     34
Economic Consideration and Loss Evaluation     37
Present Value and Annuity Method     37
Evaluation of Losses     38
Energy Losses     39
Power Losses     40
Topologies of Electrical Power Systems     45
Development of Power Systems     45
Recommended Voltage Levels     47
Topology of Power Systems     48
Radial Systems     48
Ring-Main Systems     50
Meshed Systems at HV and MV Levels     62
Meshed Systems at the LV Level     65
Special Operating Considerations     67
Arrangement in Gridstations and Substations     69
Busbar Arrangements     69
General     69
Single Busbar without Separation     69
Single Busbar with Sectionalizer     71
Special H-Arrangement     71
Double Busbar Arrangement     72
Double Busbar with Reserve Busbar     73
Arrangement in Switchyards     74
Breakers and Switches     74
Incoming and Outgoing Feeders     75
Current Transformers     75
Voltage Transformers     78
Transformers      81
General     81
Utilization and Construction of Transformers     81
Utilization of Transformers     81
Oil-Immersed Transformers and Dry-Type Transformers     83
Characteristic Data of Transformers     86
Operation of Transformers     86
Voltage Drop     86
Permissible Loading of Transformer Neutral     88
Thermal Permissible Loading     88
Temperature Models     88
Maximum Permissible Loading of Oil-Immersed Transformers     95
Maximal Permissible Loading of Dry-Type Transformers     102
Economical Operation of Transformers     105
Short-Circuit Strength     106
Cable Systems     111
General     111
Construction Details     112
Electrical Parameters of Cables     114
Losses and Permissible Current     115
General     115
Calculation of Losses     118
Soil Characteristics     120
Thermal Resistances of Cables     123
Calculation according to VDE 0276-1000     124
Determination of Maximal Permissible Loading by Computer Programs     126
Planning and Design of Cable Routes and Trenches      127
Coordination with Other Cables and Pipes     127
Effect of Thermally Unfavorable Areas     129
Influence of Other Parameters     130
Short-Circuit Withstand Capability     132
General     132
Rating of Cable Screens     134
Overhead Lines     137
General     137
Permissible Loading (Thermal) Current     137
Design Limits     137
Losses     138
Heating by Solar Radiation     140
Heat Dissipation by Radiation and Convection     142
Examples for Permissible Thermal Loading     145
Electric Field Strength     145
Sag, Tensions and Minimum Distances     148
Minimal Length of Insulation     148
Conductor Sag and Span Length     150
Short-Circuit Thermal Withstand Strength     151
Right-of-way (ROW) and Tower Arrangement     153
Cost Estimates     156
Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS)     159
Basics of Transmission of Power through Lines     159
Parallel Compensation of Lines     163
Serial Compensation of Lines     165
Phase-Shifting Equipment     166
Improvement of Stability     168
Load-Flow and Short-Circuit Current Calculation     173
Load-Flow Calculation     173
Calculation of Short-Circuit Currents     175
General     175
Initial Short-Circuit Current (AC)     179
Peak Short-Circuit Current     179
Symmetrical Short-Circuit Breaking Current     182
Steady-State Short-Circuit Current     183
Influence of Synchronous and Asynchronous Motors     183
Short-Circuit Withstand Capability     185
Limitation of Short-Circuit Currents     187
General     187
Measures in Power Systems     188
Measures in Installations and Switchgear Arrangement     193
Measures Concerning Equipment     199
Connection of "Green-Energy" Generation to Power Systems     205
General     205
Conditions for System Connection     208
General     208
Short-Circuit Currents and Protective Devices     209
Reactive Power Compensation     209
Voltage Fluctuations and Voltage Increase     210
Harmonic and Interharmonic Currents and Voltages     211
Flicker     213
Voltage Unbalance      214
Protection of Equipment and Power System Installations     217
Faults and Disturbances     217
Criteria for Operation of Protection Devices     218
General Structure of Protective Systems; Transducers     220
Protection of Equipment     222
Protection of Lines (Overhead Lines and Cables)     223
General     223
Overcurrent Protection     224
Distance (Impedance) Protection     226
Differential Protection of Lines     231
Ground-Fault Protection     231
Protection of Transformers     233
General     233
Differential Protection     233
Overcurrent Protection, Distance Protection, Ground-Fault Protection     234
Buchholz Protection     235
Protection of Busbars     236
Current Criteria for Busbar Protection     236
Impedance Criteria for Busbar Protection     237
Protection of Other Equipment     237
Reference List of IEC-Symbols and ANSI-Code-Numbers     237
Overvoltages and Insulation Coordination     239
General; Definitions     239
Procedure of Insulation Coordination     241
Determination of the Representative Overvoltages     242
Continuous Power-Frequency Voltage and Temporary Overvoltages     242
Slow-Front Overvoltages     243
Fast-Front Overvoltages     245
Determination of the Coordination Withstand Voltage and the Required Withstand Voltage     252
Selection of the Rated Voltage     254
Application Example     257
Influence of Neutral Earthing on Single-Phase Short-Circuit Currents     263
General     263
Power System with Low-Impedance Earthing     264
Power System Having Earthing with Current Limitation     268
Power System with Isolated Neutral     270
Power System with Resonance Earthing (Petersen Coil)     275
General     275
Calculation of Displacement Voltage     279
Tuning of the Petersen Coil     282
Earthing of Neutrals on HV Side and LV Side of Transformers     284
Tendering and Contracting     289
General (Project Definition)     289
Terms of Reference (TOR)     291
Background     291
Objective     291
Scope of Engineering Activities     292
Project Funding     293
Form of Tendering      293
International Tendering     294
Prequalification     294
Short Listing     295
Planning and Design     295
Tender Structure     297
General     297
Tender Set-up     298
General Technical Specifications     300
Scope of Work and Supply     308
General     308
380kV Switchgear     308
123kV Switchgear     309
Transformers and Reactors     309
Telecommunication System     310
Technical Data Sheets     310
Tendering Period and Evaluation of Tender     312
Tendering Period     312
Bid Evaluation     317
Contracting     317
Appendix     321
References     325
Index     331

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