Production and Packaging of Non-Carbonated Fruit Juices and Fruit Beverages

Production and Packaging of Non-Carbonated Fruit Juices and Fruit Beverages

by P. R. Ashurst (Editor)

Paperback(1995)

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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781461353195
Publisher: Springer US
Publication date: 10/21/2012
Edition description: 1995
Pages: 429
Product dimensions: 6.10(w) x 9.25(h) x 0.04(d)

Table of Contents

1 Authentication of orange juice.- 1.1 Introduction.- 1.1.1 Incidence of adulteration.- 1.1.2 The market for frozen concentrated orange juice.- 1.1.3 Factors affecting adulteration.- 1.1.4 Combating fake juice.- 1.2 Analysis.- 1.2.1 Minerals.- 1.2.2 Organic acids.- 1.2.3 Sugars.- 1.2.4 Isotopic methods.- 1.2.5 Photometric methods.- 1.2.6 Amino acids.- 1.2.7 Methods of limited application.- 1.2.8 Future possibilities.- 1.3 Statistics.- 1.3.1 Introduction and the Gaussian distribution.- 1.3.2 Some problems of statistical interpretation.- 1.3.3 Ratios as variates.- 1.3.4 Multivariate techniques.- 1.3.5 Pattern recognition analysis.- 1.4 Recent developments in orange juice adulteration.- 1.4.1 Introduction.- 1.4.2 The SNIF-NMR method.- 1.4.3 Multi-isotopic fingerprint of fruit juices.- 1.4.4 Further applications of the SNIF-NMR method.- 1.4.5 The implications for orange juice authentication under the UK Food Safety Act 1990.- References.- 2 Chemistry and technology of citrus juices and by-products.- 2.1 Principal citrus cultivars.- 2.1.1 Origin of citrus.- 2.1.2 Commercial citrus regions.- 2.1.3 Citrus growing areas.- 2.1.4 Effect of frost.- 2.1.5 Effect of soil.- 2.2 Composition and structure of citrus fruits and juices of various cultivars.- 2.2.1 General relationship.- 2.2.2 Organic acids.- 2.2.3 Carbohydrates.- 2.2.4 Color pigments.- 2.2.5 Vitamins and inorganic constituents.- 2.2.6 Flavonoids.- 2.2.7 Lipids.- 2.3 Operational procedures and effects on quality and shelf life of citrus juices.- 2.3.1 Outline of good manufacturing and processing procedures.- 2.4 Citrus juice flavor enhancement with natural citrus volatiles.- 2.4.1 Components of citrus juice flavor.- 2.4.2 Citrus flavor enhancement technology.- 2.4.3 Citrus oils and aroma and their recovery.- 2.5 Pectic substances and relationship of citrus enzymes to juice quality.- 2.6 Effect of time, temperature and other factors on citrus products.- References.- 3 Grape juice processing.- 3.1 History of grape juice processing in North America.- 3.2 Grape cultivars.- 3.3 The chemistry of grape juice.- 3.3.1 Carbohydrates.- 3.3.2 Acids.- 3.3.3 Mineral content.- 3.3.4 Phenolics.- 3.3.5 Volatiles.- 3.4 Modern grape juice processing.- 3.4.1 Harvesting/ripening.- 3.4.2 Stemmer/crusher operation.- 3.4.3 Hot-break process.- 3.4.4 De-juicing/pressing operation.- 3.4.5 Coarse filtration.- 3.4.6 Bulk storage and tartrate precipitation.- 3.4.7 Enzyme clarification.- 3.4.8 Polish (fine) filtration.- 3.4.9 Hot fill.- 3.5 Process alternatives.- 3.5.1 Cold-pressing.- 3.5.2 Aseptic process.- 3.5.3 Concentration.- 3.5.4 Sulfur dioxide preservative.- References.- 4 Tropical fruit juices.- 4.1 Introduction.- 4.2 Guava.- 4.3 Mango.- 4.4 Passionfruit.- 4.5 Pineapple.- 4.6 Other tropical fruits.- 4.6.1 Acerola.- 4.6.2 Banana.- 4.6.3 Kiwifruit.- 4.6.4 Lulo.- 4.6.5 Papaya.- 4.6.6 Soursop.- 4.6.7 Umbu.- 4.7 Tropical fruit juices in Europe today.- 4.8 The future.- Further reading.- 5 Growing and marketing soft fruit for juices and beverages.- 5.1 Introduction.- 5.2 Selling the fruit crop: the options.- 5.2.1 The market place.- 5.2.2 Minimum import prices.- 5.2.3 The long term contract.- 5.3 Producing the soft fruit crop.- 5.4 Blackcurrants.- 5.4.1 General.- 5.4.2 Siting.- 5.4.3 Manuring.- 5.4.4 Varieties.- 5.4.5 Propagation.- 5.4.6 Planting.- 5.4.7 Weed control.- 5.4.8 Frost protection.- 5.4.9 Harvesting/handling.- 5.4.10 Control of fruit quality at harvesting.- 5.4.11 Plantation life.- 5.5 Control of fruit pests and diseases.- 5.5.1 ‘Organic’ production of fruit.- 5.5.2 Selection of pesticides for crop protection.- 5.6 Pests and diseases of blackcurrants.- 5.6.1 Viruses.- 5.6.2 Arthropods.- 5.6.3 Fungi.- 5.7 Other soft fruits.- 5.7.1 Strawberries.- 5.7.2 Raspberries.- 5.7.3 Gooseberries.- 5.7.4 Red currants.- 5.7.5 Blackberries.- 5.8 Storing fruit for processing.- 5.9 The future—blackcurrant research and development (R & D).- 6 Apple juice.- 6.1 General background.- 6.1.1 Juice extraction.- 6.1.2 Pomace disposal.- 6.1.3 Blending and packaging.- 6.2 Natural style and opalescent juices.- 6.3 Clarified juice and concentrate.- 6.3.1 Enzyming.- 6.3.2 Pulp enzyming.- 6.3.3 Fining.- 6.3.4 Concentrates.- 6.3.5 Hazes and deposits.- 6.4 Authentication and adulteration.- 6.5 Composition.- 6.5.1 Sugars and sorbitol.- 6.5.2 Starch and pectin.- 6.5.3 Organic acids.- 6.5.4 Protein and amino acids.- 6.5.5 Polyphenols and colour.- 6.5.6 Minerals.- 6.5.7 Volatile components.- 6.5.8 Other flavour aspects.- 6.5.9 Microbiology.- 6.6 Juice tests.- 6.7 Note.- References.- 7 Equipment for extraction of soft and pome fruit juices.- 7.1 Introduction: modern juice processing methods.- 7.2 Juice extraction systems.- 7.2.1 Fruit storage and handling.- 7.2.2 Milling.- 7.2.3 Pressing.- 7.2.4 Comparison of pressing systems.- 7.2.5 European grape pressing.- 7.3 Pre-treatment with pectolytic enzymes.- 7.4 Post-press clarification.- 7.4.1 Decantation.- 7.4.2 Centrifugation.- 7.4.3 Earth filtration.- 7.4.4 Rotary vacuum filters.- 7.4.5 Sheet filtration.- 7.4.6 Cartridge filters.- 7.4.7 Membrane filtration.- 7.5 Concentration/aroma recovery.- 7.5.1 Rising film evaporators.- 7.5.2 Falling film evaporators.- 7.5.3 Centrifugal evaporators.- 7.5.4 Heat recovery from evaporated water.- 7.5.5 Aroma recovery.- 7.6 Pasteurisation.- 7.6.1 Flash pasteurisation.- 7.6.2 Batch pasteurisation.- 7.6.3 In-pack pasteurisation/hot filling.- 7.7 Fruit juice plant layout.- 7.7.1 Materials of construction.- 7.7.2 Fruit reception.- 7.7.3 Handling and washing fruit.- 7.7.4 Seasonal problems.- 7.7.5 Effluent treatment.- 7.7.6 Juice storage.- 7.8 Summary.- References.- 8 Processing of citrus juices.- 8.1 Introduction.- 8.2 Fruit harvesting and transport.- 8.3 Unloading and storage of fruit.- 8.4 Fruit transfer from storage bins to extractors.- 8.5 Juice extraction and finishing.- 8.5.1 Extractors.- 8.5.2 Finishing.- 8.6 Juice processing for pasteurized single strength.- 8.7 Juice processing for concentrate.- 8.7.1 Characteristics of 1950s evaporators.- 8.7.2 Modern evaporators for citrus fruit.- 8.8 Essence recovery.- 8.9 Chilled juice from concentrate.- 8.10 Pulp wash.- 8.11 Frozen pulp processing.- 8.12 Manufacture of citrus cold-pressed oil.- 8.13 Manufacture of livestock feed from citrus peel.- 8.13.1 Peel dryer.- 8.13.2 Waste heat evaporator.- Further reading.- 9 Juice enhancement by ion exchange and adsorbent technologies.- 9.1 Overview.- 9.2 History.- 9.3 Resin chemistry.- 9.3.1 Polymer matrices.- 9.3.2 Equilibrium of ion exchange.- 9.4 Adsorbents.- 9.4.1 Activated carbon.- 9.4.2 Zeolites.- 9.4.3 Polymeric adsorbents.- 9.5 Applications.- 9.5.1 Grape juice.- 9.5.2 Apple and pear juice.- 9.5.3 Pineapple mill juice.- 9.5.4 Reduced-acid frozen concentrated orange juice.- 9.5.5 De-bittered orange juice.- 9.6 Summary.- References.- 10 Processing systems for fruit juice and related products.- 10.1 Introduction.- 10.2 Design parameters.- 10.3 Plant configuration.- 10.3.1 Plate heat exchanger (PHE).- 10.3.2 Tubular heat exchanger (THE).- 10.3.3 Direct steam heating system (DSH).- 10.3.4 Scraped surface heat exchanger (SSHE).- 10.3.5 Sterile tank (aseptic tank).- 10.4 Other parameters for juice processing.- 10.4.1 Raw material.- 10.4.2 De-aeration.- 10.4.3 Homogenisation.- 10.4.4 Water quality.- 10.5 New developments and technologies.- 10.5.1 High pressure pasteurisation.- 10.5.2 Electro shock.- Acknowledgements.- Further reading.- 11 Packaging systems for fruit juices and non-carbonated beverages.- 11.1 Introduction.- 11.2 The cold fill fresh system.- 11.3 The hot fill system.- 11.4 Filling equipment for gable top cartons.- 11.5 Aseptic Pure-Pak.- 11.6 Packing materials for gable top cartons.- 11.7 Product protection and product/pack interaction.- 11.7.1 General considerations.- 11.7.2 Cold filled juices.- 11.7.3 Hot filled juices.- 11.7.4 Aseptically filled juices.- 11.7.5 Flavour.- 11.8 Packaging of frozen concentrated juices (FCJ).- 11.9 Filling in glass containers.- 11.10 Plastic containers and pouches.- References and further reading.- 12 The formulation of sports drinks.- 12.1 Introduction.- 12.2 Sports drinks.- 12.2.1 History and background.- 12.2.2 The sports drink market.- 12.3 The effect of exercise.- 12.3.1 Carbohydrate.- 12.3.2 Fluid.- 12.3.3 Sodium.- 12.3.4 Potassium.- 12.3.5 Other ions.- 12.4 Physiological considerations.- 12.5 The essentials of a sports drink.- 12.6 Formulation considerations.- 12.7 Other nutrients.- 12.7.1 Branched chain amino acids.- 12.7.2 Glutamine.- 12.7.3 Carnitine.- 12.7.4 Choline.- 12.7.5 Taurine.- 12.7.6 Ubiquinone.- 12.7.7 Caffeine.- 12.7.8 Sodium bicarbonate.- References.- 13 Nutritional value and safety of processed fruit juices.- 13.1 Introduction.- 13.2 Composition of fruit juices.- 13.2.1 Proximate composition.- 13.2.2 Inorganic constituents.- 13.2.3 Vitamins.- 13.3 Composition of individual fruit juice products.- 13.3.1 Sugars.- 13.3.2 Organic acids.- 13.3.3 Vitamins.- 13.3.4 Inorganic constituents.- 13.4 Levels of consumption and nutritional significance.- 13.4.1 The glycaemic response to fruit juice.- 13.5 Fruit juice and dental caries/erosion.- 13.6 Fruit juice safety.- 13.6.1 Naturally occurring toxicants.- 13.6.2 Metal contamination.- References.- 14 Legislation controlling production, labelling and marketing of fruit juices and fruit beverages.- 14.1 Fruit juices, concentrated fruit juices and fruit nectars.- 14.1.1 Introduction.- 14.1.2 Fruit juice regulations in EU countries.- 14.1.3 Fruit juice regulations in EFT A countries.- 14.1.4 Fruit juice regulations in USA and Canada.- 14.1.5 Fruit juice regulations in other major countries.- 14.1.6 Fruit juice standards produced by Codex Alimentarius.- 14.2 Non-carbonated fruit drinks and beverages.- 14.2.1 Introduction.- 14.2.2 Fruit drink regulations in EU countries.- 14.2.3 Fruit drink regulations in EFTA countries.- 14.2.4 Fruit drink regulations in USA and Canada.- 14.2.5 Fruit drink regulations in other major countries.- 14.2.6 Fruit drink standards produced by Codex Alimentarius.- References.- 15 Water and effluent treatment in juice processing.- 15.1 Water treatment.- 15.1.1 Introduction.- 15.1.2 Water quality for juices and beverages.- 15.1.3 Treatment methods.- 15.2 Effluent management and treatment.- 15.2.1 Introduction.- 15.2.2 Measures of effluent strength.- 15.2.3 Mass load determination.- 15.2.4 Volume assessment.- 15.2.5 The total picture.- 15.2.6 Drainage.- 15.2.7 Legal and cost aspects.- 15.2.8 UK Environmental Protection Act.- 15.2.9 Flow and quality measurement.- 15.2.10 Management schemes for effluent.- 15.2.11 Effluent treatment.- 15.2.12 Sludge treatment.- References.

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