Most catalysts used in the chemical and petrochemical indus tries are strongly affected by one or another form of deactivation, leading to poor performances and reduced life. The increasing num ber of scientific communications devoted to the subject in recent years, and culminating with an International Symposium held in Antwerp in October 1980, is a measure of the interest it arouses in both the industrial and academic communities. A stage has been reached whereby it was thought that a NATO Advanced Study Institute on "Catalyst Deactivation" might be fruit ful in establishing the state of the art and in stimulating a more systematic research on the phenomenon. Such a meeting was held ~n Lagos, Portugal, from 18 to 29 May 1981. The purpose of the Institute was to present and discuss in a didatic and systematic way the various processes that lead to cata lyst deactivation, namely coking, poisoning and solid state trans formations, and at the same time to promote the exchange of ideas and experiences among the participants, drawn from industry and uni versity. The lectures presented at the Institute are collected in this volume with the exception of Dr. L.L.Hegedus "Catalyst Poisoning", which has been previously published (Catalysis Reviews, Science md Engineering, 23, 377-476, 1981).
Table of ContentsI. Introduction.- to catalyst deactivation.- Experimental assessment of catalyst deactivation.- II. Coking.- Coke formation in the gas phase and on surfaces.- Carbon formation and gasification on nickel.- Carbon formation on metals other than nickel and on alloys.- Constraints on carbon formation in zeolite catalysts.- Application of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to studies of coke formation on cracking catalysts.- A rigorous formulation of the effect of coke formation on catalyst activity.- Criteria for carbon formation (steam reforming and methanation).- III. Poisoning.- Catalyst poisoning and chemical process dynamics.- Sulfur poisoning (steam reforming and methanation).- IV. Solid state transformations.- The role of chemical transformations of solids in ageing and deactivation of catalysts.- The catalytic effects of water and halogens on the alteration of catalyst surfaces.- Sintering of commercial supported platinum group metal catalysts.- Sintering studies using model supported metal catalysts.- Models for the sintering of supported metal catalysts.- V. Industrial example.- Deactivation and regeneration of catalytic-reforming catalysts.- List of participants and lecturers.