ISBN-10:
9048199042
ISBN-13:
9789048199044
Pub. Date:
11/08/2010
Publisher:
Springer Netherlands
Renewable Energies in Germany's Electricity Market: A Biography of the Innovation Process / Edition 1

Renewable Energies in Germany's Electricity Market: A Biography of the Innovation Process / Edition 1

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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9789048199044
Publisher: Springer Netherlands
Publication date: 11/08/2010
Edition description: 2011
Pages: 408
Product dimensions: 6.30(w) x 9.20(h) x 1.10(d)

About the Author

Elke Bruns works as senior research associate at the Environmental Assessment and Policy Research Group at the Berlin Institute of Technology (www.umweltpruefung.tu-berlin.de). She studied environmental planning and became familiar with renewable energies in the early 1990s, when working on a wind turbine zoning decree at the Ministry of Environment in the state of Brandenburg. Since then she has continuously worked in the field of impact assessment, impact mitigation and spatial aspects of renewable energies at the Berlin Institute of Technology. Since 2003 she had focused on analyzing the constellation and driving factors that influence renewable energy developments, and their environmental implications.
Contact: elke.bruns@tu-berlin.de

Dörte Ohlhorst works as research associate at the German Advisory Council on the Environment since March 2009. Since 1999 she has been an academic researcher at the Centre for Technology and Society at the Berlin Institute of Technology. She focused on the development of wind energy in her PhD thesis and gained her PhD in Political Science at the Free University of Berlin in 2008. Her primary fields of interest include German renewable energy policy, environmental and innovation policy, multi-level governance, sustainability strategies and social participation focusing on methods for interdisciplinary studies.
Contact: ohlhorst@zedat.fu-berlin.de

Bernd Wenzel is head of Ingenieurbüro für neue Energien (IfnE), a research and consulting institute for renewable energies and climate protection, resident in Teltow, Berlin. He established IfnE in 2005 and has since worked on several research projects, including for the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, and other organizations and municipalities. His focus is on economic and technical analysis of climate protection activities and renewable energies in electricity production. For more information please visit http://www.ifne.de (German).
Contact: bwenzel@ifne.de

Johann Köppel is a full professor at the Berlin Institute of Technology and head of the Environmental Assessment and Policy Research Group (www.umweltpruefung.tu-berlin.de). He teaches Environmental Impact Assessment and Environmental Planning, and has for 10 years been involved in research on supporting as well as impeding approaches to the sustainable deployment of renewable energies. Recently he has been pursuing a comparative analysis of the roles that the USA and Germany play in leading the field of renewable energies.
Contact: johann.koeppel@tu-berlin.de

Table of Contents

1 Introduction 1

2 Introduction to the Methodology 7

2.1 Research Questions and Objectives 7

2.2 Procedure 8

2.2.1 A Note on Style 9

2.3 Methodology Used in the Constellation Analysis 9

2.3.1 Constellation Analysis 9

2.3.2 Constellation Elements 10

2.3.3 Relations 10

2.3.4 Context 11

2.3.5 The Concept of a Biography of Innovation 11

2.4 Governing Political and Social Processes 12

References 13

3 Cross-sectoral Interventions, Events and Processes 15

3.1 Crises as Triggers for Social Rethinking Processes 15

3.1.1 Environmental and Climate Crises 16

3.1.2 Oil Price Crises 18

3.1.3 Nuclear Energy Crisis 19

3.1.4 Energy Supply Crises and Electricity Gap Debate 20

3.1.5 Food Crisis 22

3.2 International Climate Protection Research and Politics 22

3.2.1 International Climate Protection Process 23

3.2.2 Establishment of the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) 31

3.3 Incentives for Energy Policy at EU level 32

3.3.1 Liberalization of the Energy Markets 33

3.3.2 Renewables and Climate Protection Policy at EU Level 35

3.3.3 European Emissions Trading (Cap and Trade) 40

3.4 Emergence of National Problem Awareness and Process of Institutionalization 41

3.4.1 Institutionalization of Environmental Protection 42

3.4.2 Climate Protection in Politics and Administration 42

3.4.3 Institutionalization of Renewable Energy Policy 46

3.4.4 Establishment of Associations 47

3.5 Energy and Climate Policy Strategies and Objectives at National Level 49

3.5.1 Guidelines on Energy Policy Issued by the Federal Government in 1991 49

3.5.2 Change of Government to Red-Green in 1998 49

3.5.3 National Climate Protection Programs 49

3.5.4 Nuclear Phaseout Resolution of 2001 50

3.5.5 Sustainability Strategy 2002 51

3.6 Government Aid for Renewable Energy 51

3.6.1 Market Incentive Program 52

3.6.2 Federal Research Funding 52

3.6.3 Funding on State Level 57

3.7 StrEG and EEG as Key Policy Measures 57

3.7.1 The Electricity Feed-In Act (StrEG) 58

3.7.2 The Renewable Energy Sources Act (EEG) 61

3.7.3 Integrated Energy and Climate Program of the Federal Government 64

3.8 Environmental and Planning Law for Renewable Energy Projects 66

3.8.1 Amendment of Regional Planning Law 66

3.8.2 Zoning Law/Planning Permission Law 67

3.8.3 Legal Basis for Grid Connection and Grid Expansion 69

3.9 Overall Parameters of the Electricity Sector 70

3.9.1 Integration of the Electricity Industry in Europe - Actors and Influencing Factors 70

3.9.2 Structure of the German Electricity Supply Sector 72

3.9.3 Liberalization of the Energy Market - The German Energy Industry Act 73

3.9.4 Current Courses Set in the Energy Sector 76

References 80

4 Innovation Framework for Generating Biogas and Electricity from Biogas 89

4.1 Preliminary Remarks 90

4.2 Phase-Based Analysis of the Innovation Process 90

4.2.1 Historical Retrospective 90

4.2.2 Phase 1: Pioneering Phase, 1970-1990 91

4.2.3 Phase 2: First Phase of Emergence From 1990 to 1999 100

4.2.4 Phase 3: Intensified Emergence Between 2000 and Mid-2004 110

4.2.5 Phase 4: Take-off from Mid-2004 to the End of 2006 121

4.2.6 Phase 5: Setback in Development 2007/2008 138

4.2.7 Consolidation from Mid-2008 Onward and Future Prospects 148

References 155

5 Innovation Conditions in the Case of Solar Power Generation 161

5.1 Preliminary Remarks 161

5.2 Phase-Specific Analysis of the Innovation Process 162

5.2.1 A Historical Overview 162

5.2.2 Phase 1: Pioneering Phase, 1970-1985 163

5.2.3 Phase 2: Stagnation of Industry Engagement, R&D, 1986-1991 168

5.2.4 Phase 3: Large-scale Testing from 1991 to 1994 178

5.2.5 Phase 4: Uncertainty and Slowdown, 1994-1998 184

5.2.6 Phase 5: Breakthrough, 1999-2003 193

5.2.7 Phase 6: Development Boom from 2004 206

References 224

6 Conditions for Innovation in Geothermal Power Generation 229

6.1 Preliminary Remarks 229

6.2 Phase-specific Analysis of the Innovation Process 232

6.2.1 Use of Geothermal Heat in the Former GDR 232

6.2.2 Phase 1: 1985-2003, Research and Development, Preliminary Projects to Generate Electricity 233

6.2.3 Phase 2: Formation of Prospective Structures from 2004 241

6.2.4 Outlook 257

References 259

7 Innovation Framework for Generating Electricity from Wind Power 261

7.1 Preliminary Remarks 261

7.2 Phase-Based Analysis of the Innovation Process 262

7.2.1 Phase 1: Pioneering Phase - Mid- 1970s Until 1986 263

7.2.2 Phase 2: Inception - Changing Context of Energy Policy Between 1986 and 1990 268

7.2.3 Phase 3: Breakthrough 1991 - 1995 273

7.2.4 Phase 4: Development Dip in the Mid- 1990s 283

7.2.5 Phase 5: Wind Power Boom and Reorganization 1997/98 to 2002 289

7.2.6 Phase 6: Consolidation and Divergence of the Pathway from 2002 Onward 298

References 326

8 Innovation Framework for Generating Electricity from Hydropower 333

8.1 Preliminary Remarks 333

8.2 Hydropower in the Pioneering Phase (Before 1930) 334

8.2.1 Turbine Technology 335

8.2.2 Hydropower Plants 337

8.3 Phase-Based Analysis of the Course of Innovation 337

8.3.1 Phase 1: Hydropower Maturation Phase (1930-1990) 337

8.3.2 Phase 2: Revitalization of Small Hydropower, 1990-1999 347

8.3.3 Phase 3: Modernization Under Environmental Constraints, 2000 to the Present 354

8.3.4 Prospects 363

References 364

9 Cross-Sectional Comparison 367

9.1 Key Driving Forces in the Innovation Biographies 368

9.1.1 Civic Activities, Creative Environment and Pioneers 368

9.1.2 Advocacy Coalitions 369

9.1.3 Political Window 371

9.1.4 Political Strategies and Lead Principles 371

9.1.5 Institutionalization and Market Incentives 372

9.1.6 Multi-Level Policy as the Driver 375

9.1.7 Technology-Bound Driving Forces 376

9.2 Inhibitory Influences in the Innovation Biographies 378

9.2.1 Investment Costs and Limited Resources 378

9.2.2 Inhibitory Advocacy Coalitions 378

9.2.3 Insufficient and Incompatible Infrastructure 379

9.2.4 Loss of Acceptance 380

9.3 Comparison of Innovation Processes: Characteristic Phases and Different Processes 381

9.3.1 Pioneering Phase or Early Phase Including Pilot Applications 382

9.3.2 Inception 383

9.3.3 Breakthrough 383

9.3.4 Expansion and Boom Phases 384

9.3.5 Phases of Instability and Crisis 385

9.3.6 Phases of Stabilization and Consolidation 386

10 Insights into the Drivers of Innovation 387

10.1 Phase-Specific Adjustment of Policies 388

10.1.1 Identifying and Strengthening Innovation Processes in the Early Phase 388

10.1.2 On the Path to a Breakthrough - Stimulating the Process in its Inception Phase 390

10.1.3 In the Expansion Phase: Easing Integration into the System and Avoiding Acceptance Problems 390

10.1.4 Sustaining Innovation Processes by Corrective Controls 392

10.1.5 Driving Innovation During Unstable Phases 392

10.2 Recognizing and Limiting Unintended Outcomes in a Timely Manner 394

10.3 Integrating Levels of Action and Actors 395

10.3.1 Coordination and Integration of Policy Levels 395

10.3.2 Integrating the Goals of Government Portfolios 396

10.3.3 Integrating Sub-Constellations 396

10.3.4 Planning Policies 396

10.4 Synchronization-Based Policy 397

10.4.1 Temporal Synchronization 397

10.4.2 Accumulation of Policy Action 397

10.4.3 Synchronizing Heterogeneous Innovation Processes 398

10.5 Coherent Policies in Complex Constellations 398

10.6 Future Challenges Facing Governance 399

10.6.1 From Integration to Transformation in the Electricity Sector - a Complex Policy Task 399

10.6.2 Compatibility of Power Generation Systems 399

10.6.3 Optimizing the Power Line Infrastructure 400

10.6.4 Prospects for System Transformation in the Electricity Sector 401

Authors' Biographies 403

Annex 405

Index of Legal Sources 405

Energy Law 405

Environmental and Building Law 406

EU Directives and Court Rulings 407

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