Reptile Biodiversity: Standard Methods for Inventory and Monitoring

Reptile Biodiversity: Standard Methods for Inventory and Monitoring

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Overview

From tiny, burrowing lizards to rainforest canopy-dwellers and giant crocodiles, reptile populations everywhere are changing. Yet government and conservation groups are often forced to make important decisions about reptile conservation and management based on inadequate or incomplete data. With contributions from nearly seventy specialists, this volume offers a comprehensive guide to the best methods for carrying out standardized quantitative and qualitative surveys of reptiles, while maximizing comparability of data between sites, across habitats and taxa, and over time. The contributors discuss each method, provide detailed protocols for its implementation, and suggest ways to analyze the data, making this volume an essential resource for monitoring and inventorying reptile abundance, population status, and biodiversity.

Reptile Biodiversity covers topics including:

• terrestrial, marine, and aquatic reptiles

• equipment recommendations and limitations

• ethics of monitoring and inventory activities

• statistical procedures

• designing sampling programs

• using PDAs in the field

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780520266711
Publisher: University of California Press
Publication date: 01/10/2012
Edition description: First Edition
Pages: 424
Product dimensions: 8.50(w) x 11.10(h) x 1.10(d)

About the Author

Roy W. McDiarmid is a Research Zoologist and Curator of Reptiles for the USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center at the National Museum of Natural History. Mercedes S. Foster is a Research Zoologist and Curator of Birds for the USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center at the National Museum of Natural History. Craig Guyer is Professor of Biological Sciences at Auburn University. J. Whitfield Gibbons is Professor of Ecology at the University of Georgia and former head of the Environmental Outreach and Education program at the Savannah River Ecology Laboratory. Neil Chernoff is a scientist at the National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

Table of Contents

FIGURES xi
TABLES xvi
AUTHORS AND CONTRIBUTOR xviii
FOREWORD Rick Shine xxii
PREFACE xxvi

CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION 1

Mercedes S. Foster, Roy W. McDiarmid, and Neil Chernoff

Setting the Stage
Importance of Standardization

Intended Audience


CHAPTER 2. REPTILE DIVERSITY AND NATURAL HISTORY: AN OVERVIEW 8

Roy W. McDiarmid


Introduction
Turtles
Crocodilians
Lepidosaurs


CHAPTER 3. STUDY DESIGN AND SAMPLING 49

Overview Robert N. Fisher and Milan Mitrovich
The Value of Long-term Monitoring J. Whitfield Gibbons
Know Your Organisms Joseph C. Mitchell
Using Geographical
Information Systems to Design Reptile Surveys Charles R. Peterson
and John R. Lee
Precautions for Quantitative Reptile Field Studies Lee-Ann C. Hayek




CHAPTER 4. PLANNING AND ASSOCIATED DATA 117

Overview Mercedes S. Foster
Climate Data and Seasonality Joseph C. Mitchell
Describing Microhabitats Robert E. Lovich and Kim Gray-Lovich
Diversity, Distribution Maps, and Atlas Production Ralph W. Axtell
Automated Data Acquisition Michael E. Dorcas and Charles R. Peterson
Handheld Computers for Digital Data Collection Carlton J. Rochester and Robert N.
Fisher
Databases, Metadata, and
Integrated Data Management Christopher Brown and
Robert N. Fisher
Data quality Assurance and Quality Control Andrea Atkinson, Carlton J. Rochester,
and Robert N. Fisher


CHAPTER 5. FINDING AND CAPTURING REPTILES 183

Lee A. Fitzgerald


Introduction
General Considerations
Detecting, Counting, and Sampling Squamates

Contributed sections:
Funnel Traps, Pitfall Traps, and Drift Fences Lee A. Fitzgerald and J. H. Yantis
Specialized Trapping of Snakes over Large Areas D. Craig Rudolph
Finding, Counting, and Catching Crocodiles Frank Mazzotti
Collaboration with Local People for Sampling Reptiles Marcio Martins and
Cristiano Nogueira


CHAPTER 6. VOUCHER SPECIMENS 216

Robert P. Reynolds and Roy W. McDiarmid


Introduction
Field Identification
Specimen repositories
Sample size
Specimen data
Conclusions

Appendix A. Preparing reptiles as scientific specimens Sean J. Berry
Contributed section: Hemipenis preparation Christopher J. Raxworthy

Appendix B. Collection and preservation of reptilian embryos Alan H. Savitzky,
William A. Velhagen, Jr., and Neil Chernoff
Appendix C. Field parasitology techniques for reptile surveys Scott L. Gardner,
Robert N. Fisher, and Sean J. Berry
Appendix D. Collecting and preserving tissues for biochemical analyses James A.
Schulte II


CHAPTER 7. TECHNIQUES FOR DIFFICULT-TO-SAMPLE HABITATS 311

Overview Robert E. Lovich
1. Rock-dwelling reptiles Robert E. Lovich and Aaron M. Bauer
2. Snake hibernacula and communal denning Robert N. Reed, Cameron A.
Young, and Robert T. Zappalorti
3. Arboreal reptiles: Tree-trunk and canopy-dwelling species
Indraneil Das
4. Swamp-dwelling crocodilians William E. Magnusson
5. Detecting and Capturing Turtles
In Freshwater Habitats Richard C. Vogt
6. Alternative Methods For Sampling Freshwater Turtles Thomas S. B. Akre,
John D.Willson, and Thomas P. Wilson
7. Sampling Marine And Estuarial Reptiles Harold K. Voris and John C. Murphy



CHAPTER 8. STATISTICAL PROPERTIES OF TECHNIQUES AND VALIDATION 395

Gordon H. Rodda

Comparison of Techniques
Validation of Techniques And Assumptions


CHAPTER 9. STANDARD TECHNIQUES FOR INVENTORY AND MONITORING 415

Selecting a Technique Craig Guyer and Gordon H. Rodda
Techniques:
1. Complete Species
Inventories Christopher J. Raxworthy, Natalia Ananjeva, and
Nikolai L. Orlov
2. Road Riding Brian K. Sullivan
3. Visual Encounter Surveys Craig Guyer and Maureen A. Donnelly
4. Quadrat Sampling Harold F. Heatwole
5. Permanent Plots with Mark-recapture Craig Guyer and Maureen A. Donnelly
6. Transect Surveys, including Line Distance Robert E. Lovich, William K. Hayes, Henry
Mushinsky, and Gordon H. Rodda
7. Pitfall-Trap Surveys Robert N. Fisher and Carlton J. Rochester

8. Sampling with Artificial Cover J. Steve Godley
9. Reptile Sign and Camera Traps Robert N. Fisher
10. Nest and Track Surveys Jack Frazier
11. Aerial Surveys for Marine Turtles Robert D. Kenney and C. Robert Shoop


CHAPTER 10. PARAMETRIC ANALYSIS OF REPTILIAN BIODIVERSITY DATA 586

Chad L. Cross, Natalia Ananjeva, Nikolai L. Orlov, and Antonio W. Salas


Introduction
Biodiversity Measures
Species Density and Continuously Distributed Data
Species Accumulation Curves
Rarefaction
Taxonomic and Phylogenetic Diversity
Making
Inferences Based on Monitoring Data
Analyzing Biodiversity
Data
Computer Programs for Analyses of Biodiversity Data


CHAPTER 11. POPULATION SIZE AND DEMOGRAPHICS 615
Gordon H. Rodda


Introduction
Point estimates
Dynamic Demography

Contributed section:
Relative Abundance in Snakes: A Case Study David A. Steen, Craig Guyer,
and Lora L. Smith


CHAPTER 12. MONITORING EXPLOITED SPECIES 722

Lee A. Fitzgerald

Challenges Confronting Researchers Studying Exploited Species
Trade Patterns of Exploited Species of Reptiles
Natural History and Demographic
Information from Hunted Animals
Harvest Data, Hunter Effort, and Hunting Patterns

Analysis and
Interpretation of Exploitation Data

Informed Conservation of Exploited Species when Data Are Lacking



CHAPTER 13. WHERE DO WE GO FROM HERE? 744
Roy W. McDiarmid and Mercedes S. Foster

Introduction
Major Conservation Efforts
Species Attributes
Where We Are Today
The Future


STANDARD PROCEDURES 762

I. DEALING WITH LIVE REPTILES 763

Ethical Considerations in Working with Reptiles Gordon M. Burghardt
Handling Live Reptiles Steven J. Beaupre and Harry W. Greene
Anesthesia in Reptiles Dale DeNardo
Standard Data from Live Specimens Patrick T. Gregory
II. TECHNIQUES FOR MARKING REPTILES 810
Michael V. Plummer and John W. Ferner


Introduction
Identifying Marks and Photographs
Permanent and Temporary Tags
Tagging Different Reptile groups
Morphological Modifications
Color Marking
Radiotelemetry
Cautions and Recommendations

III. DETERMINING AGE, SEX, AND REPRODUCTIVE CONDITION 834
Robert N. Reed and Anton D. Tucker


Introduction
Determining Sex
Determining Age
Determining Reproductive Condition


APPENDICES 868

I. SELECTED INSTITUTIONS WITH SIGNIFICANT COLLECTIONS OF REPTILES 869

Mercedes S. Foster and Roy W. McDiarmid


Introduction
Natural history museums and other specimen repositories
Directories of natural history museums and collections

II. RELEVANT WEBSITES 882
TK
Mercedes S. Foster

Reptile & other websites of interest
Computer Programs
Vendors
Equipment and Supplies
Chemicals
Telemetry Equipment



LITERATURE CITED 900

INDEX TK

ADDRESSES OF AUTHORS AND CONTRIBUTORS 1111

What People are Saying About This

From the Publisher

"This volume will be useful for conservationists, managers, professional scientists and amateurs."—Environment And Ecology

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