This volume provides the first comprehensive description of reflection seismic signatures and processing methods in anisotropic media. It identifies the key parameters for time and depth imaging in transversely isotropic media and describes practical methodologies for estimating them from seismic data. Also, it contains a thorough discussion of the important issues of uniqueness and stability of seismic velocity analysis in the presence of anisotropy. The book contains a complete description of anisotropic imaging methods, from the theoretical background to algorithms to implementation issues. Numerous applications to synthetic and field data illustrate the improvements achieved by the anisotropic processing and the possibility of using the estimated anisotropic parameters in lithology discrimination.
|Series:||Handbook of Geophysical Exploration: Seismic Exploration , #29|
|Sold by:||Barnes & Noble|
|File size:||15 MB|
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Table of Contents1. Elements of basic theory of anisotropic wave propagation.
Governing equations and plane-wave properties.
Plane waves in transversely isotropic media.
Plane waves in orthorhombic media.
Appendices for Chapter 1.
Phase velocity in arbitrary anisotropic media.
Group-velocity vector as a function of phase velocity.
2. Influence of anisotropy on point-source radiation and AVO analysis.
Point-source radiation in anisotropic media. Radiation patterns and AVO analysis in VTI media. Appendices for Chapter 2. Derivation of the anisotropic Green's function. Weak-anisotropy approximation for radiation patterns in TI media.
3. Normal-moveout velocity in layered anisotropic media.
2-D NMO equation in an anisotropic layer. NMO velocity for vertical transverse isotropy. NMO velocity for tilted TI media. NMO velocity in layered media and time-to-depth conversion. Elements of 3-D analysis of NMO velocity. Appendices for Chapter 3. 2-D NMO equation in an anisotropic layer. Weak-anisotropy approximation for P-wave NMO velocity in TTI media. 2-D Dix-type equation in layered anisotropic media. 3-D NMO equation in heterogeneous anisotropic media.
4. Nonhyperbolic reflection moveout.
Quartic moveout coefficient. Nonhyperbolic moveout equation. P-wave moveout in VTI media in terms of the parameter &eegr;. Long-spread moveout of SV-waves in VTI media. Appendices for Chapter 4. Weak-anisotropy approximation for long-spread moveout. P-wave moveout in layered VTI media.
5. Reflection moveout of mode-converted waves.
Dip-dependent moveout of PS-waves in a single layer (2-D). Application to a VTI layer. 3-D treatment of PS-wave moveout of layered media. PS-wave moveout in horizontally layered VTI media. Discussion. Appendices for Chapter 5. 2-D description of PS moveout in a single layer. 3-D expression for the slope of CMP moveout. NMO velocity for converted-wave moveout. Weak-anisotropy approximation for PS-moveout in VTI media. 3-D description of PS moveout in layered media.
6. P-wave time-domain signatures in transversely isotropic media.
P-wave NMO velocity as a function of ray parameter. Two-parameter description of time processing. Discussion: Notation and P-wave signatures in VTI media. Moveout analysis for tilted symmetry axis. Appendices for Chapter 6. Dependence of NMO velocity in VTI media on the ray parameter. NMO velocity in tilted elliptical media.
7. Velocity analysis and parameter estimation for VTI media.P-wave dip-moveout inversion for &eegr;. Inversion of P-wave nonhyperbolic moveout. Joint inversion of P and PS data.
8. P-wave imaging for VTI media.
Fowler-type time-processing method. Dip moveout by Fourier transform. Time and depth migration. Synthetic example for a model from the Gulf of Mexico. Field-data example with multiple fault planes. Discussion.