State and Society: A Social and Political History of Britain since 1870

State and Society: A Social and Political History of Britain since 1870

by Martin Pugh


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State and Society: A Social and Political History of Britain since 1870 by Martin Pugh

A vigorous interpretation of political and social developments in Britain since the late-Victorian era, is one of the most respected and widely read introductions to modern British history. In it, Pugh explores, as his central theme, the relationship between the British state and its citizens with characteristic skill and insight.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781474243469
Publisher: Bloomsbury Academic
Publication date: 03/23/2017
Pages: 544
Product dimensions: 6.10(w) x 9.10(h) x 1.20(d)

About the Author

Martin Pugh is former Professor of British History at Newcastle University, UK.

Table of Contents

List of illustrations ix

List of tables and figures xi

Part I The Loss of Confidence, 1870-1902 1

Chapter 1 The retreat of the Industrial Revolution 3

The beginnings of decline? 4

Britain and free trade 8

The role of the state 10

The banks and the question of investment 11

The problem of entrepreneurship 13

Industrialization in perspective 15

Chapter 2 Not quite a democracy 19

Gladstone and Victorian Liberalism 21

The impact of parliamentary reform 24

The Conservatives under Disraeli and Salisbury 29

The rise of the Labour movement 34

National decadence 39

Chapter 3 The Victorian state and its people 43

The rising standard of living 44

The persistence of mass poverty 47

Popular attitudes towards the state and self-help 49

The growth of local government 52

The role of women in social politics 54

Socialist revival and New Liberal revisionism 57

Chapter 4 Victorian values: myth and reality 63

The growth of the state 64

The Angel in the House 65

Marriage and the family 68

Population, sex and birth control 70

Alcohol and other drugs 73

Work or leisure? 75

Respectability and improvement 78

Chapter 5 The British nation: unity and division 81

Scotland: nationalism and imperialism 81

Wales: nationalism and liberalism 84

Ireland: the threat to the Union 87

Religion and immigration 90

Monarchy and patriotism 94

Aristocracy: devaluation and decline 96

The pivotal middle classes 98

The working class: conflict and respectability 100

Chapter 6 Isolation and expansion 103

The defence of the realm 103

The new imperialism 107

The popularity of the Empire 111

Patriotism, nationalism andmilitarism 114

Part II The Reorientation: The Emergence of the Interventionist State, 1902-1918 119

Chapter 7 The state, social welfare and the economy 121

Edwardian social reform 123

Popular attitudes to the state 126

The taxation revolution 130

The state and the economy 132

Chapter 8 The Liberal-Labour alliance 135

The politics of the People's Budget 135

The Conservative dilemma 140

Labour's turning point 143

Chapter 9 Crisis and controversy in Edwardian Britain 147

Class struggle and class collaboration 147

The challenge of feminism 150

The Irish question 153

Invasion scares and plans for war 155

An ungovernable society? 160

Chapter 10 Politics and society in the Great War 163

The Continental commitment 164

State intervention in the economy 167

Political transformation 170

Social reconstruction 173

The lost generation 175

The impact of war 177

Part III The Period of Confusion: Collectivism Versus Capitalism, 1918-1940 179

Chapter 11 The failure of laissez-faire 181

The legacy of war 181

The return to gold 183

Unemployment 185

Capitalism, socialism and Keynesianism 188

Economic recovery in the 1930s 191

Chapter 12 Mass democracy in an age of decline 195

Structural changes in politics 195

Labour's rise to power 198

Baldwin, Conservatism and the General Strike 203

The National governments 205

The popular front and Labour revival 210

The stability of the British system 212

Chapter 13 The era of domesticity 219

The rising standard of living 219

The housing revolution 223

Leisure and consumerism 225

Women, family and marriage 227

Social welfare and income distribution 230

Chapter 14 Imperial climax and decline 235

Defence and disarmament 235

Popular opposition to war 238

The Empire and nationalism 242

Appeasement and rearmament 246

Part IV Consensus: The Age of the Benign State, 1940-1970 251

Chapter 15 The people's war 253

Breaking the mould 253

Mass war and social change 256

Coalition and the origins of consensus 259

The collapse of British power 262

1945: the Labour landslide 265

Chapter 16 The Keynesian era 269

The mixed economy 269

The welfare state 272

The politics of consensus 275

The affluent society and the stagnant society 279

The Liberal revival 285

Adjusting to decline 287

The decline of the parliamentary system 292

Chapter 17 The permissive society 297

Liberal reform 299

The family and marriage 300

Limited emancipation for women 302

The rise of an educated society 304

The reaction 307

Race and immigration 308

Chapter 18 The loss of Great-Power status 311

Cold War defence 311

Decolonization 314

Reluctantly into Europe 319

Part V The Era of Reaction and Decline, 1970-2007 325

Chapter 19 The breakdown of the post-war consensus, 1970-1979 327

Heath and the crisis of Conservatism 327

Multi-party politics 330

The decline of Labour 334

The origins of Thatcherism 339

Chapter 20 The era of Thatcherism 343

Monetarism and deindustrialization 344

Delusions of grandeur 347

Breaking the mould of politics 349

The growth of poverty and inequality 35

Rolling back the state 353

Presidential government and the limited revolution 356

The crisis over Europe and the downfall of Thatcher 359

Chapter 21 New Labour and the Blair era 361

Continuity or change? 361

Social change 363

Education, science and environmentalism 366

The British presidency 368

Changes in the political system 370

The Iraq War and the attack on civil liberties 373

The crisis of national identity 375

Guide to Further Reading 379

Index 391

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