ISBN-10:
1483358917
ISBN-13:
9781483358918
Pub. Date:
10/20/2015
Publisher:
SAGE Publications
Straightforward Statistics / Edition 1

Straightforward Statistics / Edition 1

by Chieh-Chen Bowen

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Overview

Straightforward Statistics / Edition 1

Straightforward Statistics by Chieh-Chen Bowen is written in plain language and connects material in a clear, logical manner to help students across the social and behavioral sciences develop a “big picture” understanding of foundational statistics. Each new chapter is purposefully connected with the previous chapter for a gradual accrual of knowledge from simple to more complex concepts—this effective, cumulative approach to statistics through logical transitions eases students into statistics and prepares them for success in more advanced quantitative coursework and their own research.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781483358918
Publisher: SAGE Publications
Publication date: 10/20/2015
Pages: 608
Sales rank: 183,866
Product dimensions: 7.30(w) x 9.00(h) x 0.90(d)

About the Author

Chieh-Chen Bowen is an Associate Professor in the Department of Psychology at Cleveland State University. She received her Ph.D. in Industrial and Organizational Psychology and a doctoral minor in Statistics from Penn State. She teaches undergraduate and graduate level Statistics, Personnel Psychology, Job Analysis, and Performance Management. Her research interests are comparing cross-cultural management practices, investigating women’s issues in the workplace, and validating personality questionnaires for employee selection. When she is not teaching or doing research, she can be found providing expert witness consulting services to attorneys who are involved in employment discrimination cases. On her days off, she works on figuring out the probability of a black-and-white cat selectively shedding only white fur on navy blue carpet while shedding only black fur on white ceramic tiles.

Table of Contents

Preface
Acknowledgments
About the Author
Chapter 1: Introduction to Statistics
What Is Statistics?
Population Versus Sample
Descriptive Statistics and Inferential Statistics
Sampling a Population
Random Sampling Methods
Simple Random Sampling
Systematic Sampling
Stratified Sampling
Cluster Sampling
Scales of Measurement
Nominal Scale
Ordinal Scale
Interval Scale
Ratio Scale
Variable Classifications
Discrete Versus Continuous Variables
Independent Variables Versus Dependent Variables
Required Mathematical Skills for This Course
Statistical Notation
Exercise Problems
Solutions With EXCEL Step-by-Step Instructions When Needed
Chapter Resources
What You Learned
Key Words
Learning Assessment
Chapter 2: Summarizing and Organizing Data
What You Know and What Is New
Frequency Distribution Table
Organizing and Summarizing Categorical Variables
Organizing and Summarizing Numerical Variables
Graphs
Bar Graphs and Histograms
Pie Charts
Common Distribution Shapes
Uniform Distribution
Normal Distribution
Skewed Distribution
EXCEL Step-by-Step Instruction for Calculating ?X from Frequency Table and Constructing a Bar Graph
Exercise Problems
Solutions
Chapter Resources
What You Learned
Key Words
Learning Assessment
Chapter 3: Descriptive Statistics
What You Know and What Is New
Measures of Central Tendency
Mode
Median
Mean
Measures of Variability
Range
Variance and Standard Deviation for a Population
Variance and Standard Deviation for a Sample
Boxplot: 5-Number Summary
Exercise Problems
Solutions With EXCEL Step-by-Step Instructions
Chapter Resources
What You Learned
Key Words
Learning Assessment
Chapter 4: Standard Z Scores
What You Know and What Is New
Standard Z Scores
Z Scores for a Population
Z Scores for a Sample
Empirical Rule for Variables With a Normal Distribution
Exercise Problems
Solutions
Chapter Resources
What You Learned
Key Words
Learning Assessment
Chapter 5: Basic Principles of Probability
What You Know and What Is New
Basic Terms and Mathematical Operations in Probability
Basic Terms in Probability
Mathematical Operations for Probabilities
Binomial Probability Distribution
Practical Probability Application: Winning the Mega-Million Lottery
The Dice Game
Linkage Between Probability and Z Score in Normal Distribution
Probabilities, Z Scores, and Raw Scores
Exercise Problems
Solutions
Chapter Resources
What You Learned
Key Words
Learning Assessment
Chapter 6: The Central Limit Theorem
What You Know and What Is New
Sampling Error
Sampling Distribution of the Sample Means and the Central Limit Theorem
The Law of Large Numbers
Relationships Between Sample Means and the Population Mean
Exercise Problems
Solutions
Chapter Resources
What You Learned
Key Words
Learning Assessment
Chapter 7: Hypothesis Testing
What You Know and What Is New
Type I Error and Type II Error
The Four-Step Process to Conduct a Hypothesis Test
Step 1: Explicitly State the Pair of Hypotheses
Step 2: Identify the Rejection Zone for the Hypothesis Test
Step 3: Calculate the Test Statistic
Step 4: Make the Correct Conclusion
Examples of the Four-Step Hypothesis Test in Action
Directional Versus Non-Directional Hypothesis Testing
Exercise Problems
Solutions
Chapter Resources
What You Learned
Key Words
Learning Assessment
Chapter 8: One-Sample t Test When Sigma Is Unknown
What You Know and What Is New
The Unknown Sigma and Conducting the One-Sample t Test
The t-Distribution, a Specific Curve for Every Degree of Freedom
Confidence Intervals
Point Estimate
Interval Estimate
Exercise Problems
Solutions With EXCEL Step-by-Step Instructions
Chapter Resources
What You Learned
Key Words
Learning Assessment
Chapter 9: Independent Samples t Tests
What You Know and What Is New
Introducing Independent Samples and the Decision Rule on Equal Variances
Decision Rule for Equal Variances Assumed Versus Equal Variances Not Assumed
Equal Variances Assumed
Equal Variances Not Assumed
Using SPSS to Run Independent-Samples t Tests
Confidence Intervals of the Mean Difference
Effect Sizes
Exercise Problems
Solutions
Chapter Resources
What You Learned
Key Words
Learning Assessment
Chapter 10: Dependent-Sample t Test
What You Know and What Is New
Introducing Dependent-Sample t Tests
Calculations and the Hypothesis-Testing Process in Dependent-Sample t Tests
Mean, Standard Deviation, and Standard Error of the Differences
Hypothesis Testing for Dependent-Sample t Tests
Confidence Interval of the Differences
Effect Size for the Dependent-Sample t Test
Using SPSS to Run Dependent-Sample t Tests
Exercise Problems
Solutions
Chapter Resources
What You Learned
Key Words
Learning Assessment
Chapter 11: Correlation
What You Know and What Is New
Pearson’s Correlation
Pearson’s Correlation Formulas
Describing and Interpreting Pearson’s r
Showing the Pearson’s Correlation in Action
Hypothesis Testing for the Pearson’s Correlation
Interpretations and Assumptions of Pearson’s Correlation
Interpretations of Pearson’s Correlation
Assumptions of Pearson’s Correlation
Special Types of Correlation
Spearman’s Rank Correlation
Partial Correlation Formula
Point Biserial Correlation
EXCEL Step-by-Step Instruction for Constructing a Scatterplot
EXCEL Step-by-Step Instruction on Calculating Pearson’s r
Exercise Problems
Solutions
Chapter Resources
What You Learned
Key Words
Learning Assessment
Chapter 12: Simple Regression
What You Know and What Is New
Y-Intercept and Slope
Hypothesis Testing With Simple Regression
Standard Error of the Estimate
The Mathematical Relationship Between Pearson’s r and the Regression Slope, b
Assumptions for Simple Regression
Step-by-Step Instructions on SPSS
Exercise Problems
Solutions
Chapter Resources
What You Learned
Key Words
Learning Assessment
Chapter 13: One-Way Analysis of Variance
What You Know and What Is New
Introducing ANOVA
Between-Group Variance and Within-Group Variance
Sum of Squares Between
Sum of Squares Within
Degrees of Freedom for Between Groups (dfB) and Within Groups (dfW)
Hypothesis Testing With ANOVA
Post Hoc Comparisons
Statistical Assumptions of an ANOVA
Effect Size for One-Way ANOVA
Step-by-Step Instructions for Using SPSS to Run an ANOVA
Exercise Problems
Solutions
Chapter Resources
What You Learned
Key Words
Learning Assessment
Chapter 14: Chi-Square Tests for Goodness-of-Fit and Independence
What You Know and What Is New
The Chi-Square
Expected Frequency
Expected Frequency Under a One-Way Frequency Table
Expected Frequency Under a Two-Way Contingency Table
Goodness-of-Fit Tests
Hypothesis Testing With the Chi-Square Goodness-of-Fit Test
Chi-Square for Independence
Hypothesis Testing With the Chi-Square Test for Independence
Exercise Problems
Solutions
Chapter Resources
What You Learned
Key Words
Learning Assessment
Appendix A. The Standard Normal Distribution Table (Z Table)
Appendix B. The t-Distribution Table (t Table)
Appendix C. The F Table
Appendix D. The Critical Values of Pearson's Correlation Table (r Table)
Appendix E. The Cirtical Values for Spearman's Rank Correlation Table (rS Table)
Appendix F. The Critical Values for the Point Biserial Correlation Table (rpbi Table)
Appendix G. The Critical Values of the Studentized Range Distribution Table (q Table)
Appendix H. The Critical Values for the Chi-Square Tests (Chi2 Table)
Answers to the Learning Assessments
Glossary
References
Index

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