ISBN-10:
1119994357
ISBN-13:
9781119994350
Pub. Date:
02/01/2012
Publisher:
Wiley
The Internet of Things: Key Applications and Protocols / Edition 2

The Internet of Things: Key Applications and Protocols / Edition 2

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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781119994350
Publisher: Wiley
Publication date: 02/01/2012
Pages: 370
Product dimensions: 6.90(w) x 9.90(h) x 1.00(d)

About the Author

Olivier Hersent, Consultant, France Olivier Hersent was thefounder of NetCentrex and former CTO of Comverse Inc., andpreviously worked as an R&D Engineer at Orange/France Telecom.He studied finance, quantum physics and psychology at the EcolePolytechnique from 1991-1994. Hersent is now an independentconsultant.

David Boswarthick, ETSI, France David has beenextensively involved in the standardization activities of mobile,fixed and convergent networks in both the EuropeanTelecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) and the 3rdGeneration Partnership Project (3GPP) for over 10 years. He iscurrently involved in the M2M standards group which is defining anend to end architecture and requirements for multiple M2Mapplications including Smart Metering, healthcare and enhanced homeliving. David holds a Maste's Degree in Networks and Distributedsystems from the University of Nice and Sophia Antipolis,France.

Omar Elloumi, Alcatel-Lucent, France Omar is currently astandardization manager at Alcatel-Lucent. He received his degreein Engineering from Université de Rennes.

Table of Contents

List of Acronyms xv

Introduction xxiii

Part I M2M AREA NETWORK PHYSICAL LAYERS

1 IEEE 802.15.4 3

1.1 The IEEE 802 Committee Family of Protocols 3

1.2 The Physical Layer 3

1.2.1 Interferences with Other Technologies 5

1.2.2 Choice of a 802.15.4 Communication Channel, EnergyDetection, Link Quality Information 7

1.2.3 Sending a Data Frame 8

1.3 The Media-Access Control Layer 8

1.3.1 802.15.4 Reduced Function and Full Function Devices,Coordinators, and the PAN Coordinator 9

1.3.2 Association 12

1.3.3 802.15.4 Addresses 13

1.3.4 802.15.4 Frame Format 13

1.3.5 Security 14

1.4 Uses of 802.15.4 16

1.5 The Future of 802.15.4: 802.15.4e and 802.15.4g 17

1.5.1 802.15.4e 17

1.5.2 802.15.4g 21

2 Powerline Communication for M2M Applications 23

2.1 Overview of PLC Technologies 23

2.2 PLC Landscape 23

2.2.1 The Historical Period (1950–2000) 24

2.2.2 After Year 2000: The Maturity of PLC 24

2.3 Powerline Communication: A Constrained Media 27

2.3.1 Powerline is a Difficult Channel 27

2.3.2 Regulation Limitations 27

2.3.3 Power Consumption 32

2.3.4 Lossy Network 33

2.3.5 Powerline is a Shared Media and Coexistence is not anOptional
Feature
35

2.4 The Ideal PLC System for M2M 37

2.4.1 Openness and Availability 38

2.4.2 Range 38

2.4.3 Power Consumption 38

2.4.4 Data Rate 39

2.4.5 Robustness 39

2.4.6 EMC Regulatory Compliance 40

2.4.7 Coexistence 40

2.4.8 Security 40

2.4.9 Latency 40

2.4.10 Interoperability with M2M Wireless Services 40

2.5 Conclusion 40

References 41

Part II LEGACY M2M PROTOCOLS FOR SENSOR NETWORKS,
BUILDING AUTOMATION AND HOME AUTOMATION

3 The BACnetTM Protocol 45

3.1 Standardization 45

3.1.1 United States 46

3.1.2 Europe 46

3.1.3 Interworking 46

3.2 Technology 46

3.2.1 Physical Layer 47

3.2.2 Link Layer 47

3.2.3 Network Layer 47

3.2.4 Transport and Session Layers 49

3.2.5 Presentation and Application Layers 49

3.3 BACnet Security 55

3.4 BACnet Over Web Services (Annex N, Annex H6) 55

3.4.1 The Generic WS Model 56

3.4.2 BACnet/WS Services 58

3.4.3 The Web Services Profile for BACnet Objects 59

3.4.4 Future Improvements 59

4 The LonWorks R Control Networking Platform61

4.1 Standardization 61

4.1.1 United States of America 61

4.1.2 Europe 62

4.1.3 China 62

4.2 Technology 62

4.2.1 Physical Layer 63

4.2.2 Link Layer 64

4.2.3 Network Layer 65

4.2.4 Transport Layer 66

4.2.5 Session Layer 67

4.2.6 Presentation Layer 67

4.2.7 Application Layer 71

4.3 Web Services Interface for LonWorks Networks: EchelonSmartServer 72

4.4 A REST Interface for LonWorks 73

4.4.1 LonBridge REST Transactions 74

4.4.2 Requests 74

4.4.3 Responses 75

4.4.4 LonBridge REST Resources 75

5 ModBus 79

5.1 Introduction 79

5.2 ModBus Standardization 80

5.3 ModBus Message Framing and Transmission Modes 80

5.4 ModBus/TCP 81

6 KNX 83

6.1 The Konnex/KNX Association 83

6.2 Standardization 83

6.3 KNX Technology Overview 84

6.3.1 Physical Layer 84

6.3.2 Data Link and Routing Layers, Addressing 87

6.3.3 Transport Layer 89

6.3.4 Application Layer 89

6.3.5 KNX Devices, Functional Blocks and Interworking89

6.4 Device Configuration 92

7 ZigBee 93

7.1 Development of the Standard 93

7.2 ZigBee Architecture 94

7.2.1 ZigBee and 802.15.4 94

7.2.2 ZigBee Protocol Layers 94

7.2.3 ZigBee Node Types 96

7.3 Association 96

7.3.1 Forming a Network 96

7.3.2 Joining a Parent Node in a Network Using 802.15.4Association 97

7.3.3 Using NWK Rejoin 99

7.4 The ZigBee Network Layer 99

7.4.1 Short-Address Allocation 99

7.4.2 Network Layer Frame Format 100

7.4.3 Packet Forwarding 101

7.4.4 Routing Support Primitives 101

7.4.5 Routing Algorithms 102

7.5 The ZigBee APS Layer 105

7.5.1 Endpoints, Descriptors 106

7.5.2 The APS Frame 106

7.6 The ZigBee Device Object (ZDO) and the ZigBee Device Profile(ZDP) 109

7.6.1 ZDP Device and Service Discovery Services(Mandatory) 109

7.6.2 ZDP Network Management Services (Mandatory) 110

7.6.3 ZDP Binding Management Services (Optional) 111

7.6.4 Group Management 111

7.7 ZigBee Security 111

7.7.1 ZigBee and 802.15.4 Security 111

7.7.2 Key Types 113

7.7.3 The Trust Center 114

7.7.4 The ZDO Permissions Table 116

7.8 The ZigBee Cluster Library (ZCL) 116

7.8.1 Cluster 116

7.8.2 Attributes 117

7.8.3 Commands 117

7.8.4 ZCL Frame 117

7.9 ZigBee Application Profiles 119

7.9.1 The Home Automation (HA) Application Profile119

7.9.2 ZigBee Smart Energy 1.0 (ZSE or AMI) 122

7.10 The ZigBee Gateway Specification for Network Devices129

7.10.1 The ZGD 130

7.10.2 GRIP Binding 131

7.10.3 SOAP Binding 132

7.10.4 REST Binding 132

7.10.5 Example IPHA–ZGD Interaction Using the RESTBinding 134

8 Z-Wave 139

8.1 History and Management of the Protocol 139

8.2 The Z-Wave Protocol 140

8.2.1 Overview 140

8.2.2 Z-Wave Node Types 140

8.2.3 RF and MAC Layers 142

8.2.4 Transfer Layer 143

8.2.5 Routing Layer 145

8.2.6 Application Layer 148

Part III LEGACY M2M PROTOCOLS FOR UTILITY METERING
9 M-Bus and Wireless M-Bus 155

9.1 Development of the Standard 155

9.2 M-Bus Architecture 156

9.2.1 Physical Layer 156

9.2.2 Link Layer 156

9.2.3 Network Layer 157

9.2.4 Application Layer 158

9.3 Wireless M-Bus 160

9.3.1 Physical Layer 160

9.3.2 Data-Link Layer 162

9.3.3 Application Layer 162

9.3.4 Security 163

10 The ANSI C12 Suite 165

10.1 Introduction 165

10.2 C12.19: The C12 Data Model 166

10.2.1 The Read and Write Minimum Services 167

10.2.2 Some Remarkable C12.19 Tables 167

10.3 C12.18: Basic Point-to-Point Communication Over an OpticalPort 168

10.4 C12.21: An Extension of C12.18 for Modem Communication169

10.4.1 Interactions with the Data-Link Layer 170

10.4.2 Modifications and Additions to C12.19 Tables171

10.5 C12.22: C12.19 Tables Transport Over Any NetworkingCommunication
System 171

10.5.1 Reference Topology and Network Elements 171

10.5.2 C12.22 Node to C12.22 Network Communications173

10.5.3 C12.22 Device to C12.22 Communication ModuleInterface 174

10.5.4 C12.19 Updates 176

10.6 Other Parts of ANSI C12 Protocol Suite 176

10.7 RFC 6142: C12.22 Transport Over an IP Network 176

10.8 REST-Based Interfaces to C12.19 177

11 DLMS/COSEM 179

11.1 DLMS Standardization 179

11.1.1 The DLMS UA 179

11.1.2 DLMS/COSEM, the Colored Books 179

11.1.3 DLMS Standardization in IEC 180

11.2 The COSEM Data Model 181

11.3 The Object Identification System (OBIS) 182

11.4 The DLMS/COSEM Interface Classes 184

11.4.1 Data-Storage ICs 185

11.4.2 Association ICs 185

11.4.3 Time- and Event-Bound ICs 186

11.4.4 Communication Setup Channel Objects 186

11.5 Accessing COSEM Interface Objects 186

11.5.1 The Application Association Concept 186

11.5.2 The DLMS/COSEM Communication Framework 187

11.5.3 The Data Communication Services of COSEM ApplicationLayer 189

11.6 End-to-End Security in the DLMS/COSEM Approach 191

11.6.1 Access Control Security 191

11.6.2 Data-Transport Security 192

Part IV THE NEXT GENERATION: IP-BASED PROTOCOLS

12 6LoWPAN and RPL 195

12.1 Overview 195

12.2 What is 6LoWPAN? 6LoWPAN and RPL Standardization 195

12.3 Overview of the 6LoWPAN Adaptation Layer 196

12.3.1 Mesh Addressing Header 197

12.3.2 Fragment Header 198

12.3.3 IPv6 Compression Header 198

12.4 Context-Based Compression: IPHC 200

12.5 RPL 202

12.5.1 RPL Control Messages 204

12.5.2 Construction of the DODAG and Upward Routes204

12.6 Downward Routes, Multicast Membership 206

12.7 Packet Routing 207

12.7.1 RPL Security 208

13 ZigBee Smart Energy 2.0 209

13.1 REST Overview 209

13.1.1 Uniform Interfaces, REST Resources and ResourceIdentifiers 209

13.1.2 REST Verbs 210

13.1.3 Other REST Constraints, and What is REST AfterAll? 211

13.2 ZigBee SEP 2.0 Overview 212

13.2.1 ZigBee IP 213

13.2.2 ZigBee SEP 2.0 Resources 214

13.3 Function Sets and Device Types 217

13.3.1 Base Function Set 218

13.3.2 Group Enrollment 221

13.3.3 Meter 223

13.3.4 Pricing 223

13.3.5 Demand Response and Load Control Function Set224

13.3.6 Distributed Energy Resources 227

13.3.7 Plug-In Electric Vehicle 227

13.3.8 Messaging 230

13.3.9 Registration 231

13.4 ZigBee SE 2.0 Security 232

13.4.1 Certificates 232

13.4.2 IP Level Security 232

13.4.3 Application-Level Security 235

14 The ETSI M2M Architecture 237

14.1 Introduction to ETSI TC M2M 237

14.2 System Architecture 238

14.2.1 High-Level Architecture 238

14.2.2 Reference Points 239

14.2.3 Service Capabilities 240

14.3 ETSI M2M SCL Resource Structure 242

14.3.1 SCL Resources 244

14.3.2 Application Resources 244

14.3.3 Access Right Resources 248

14.3.4 Container Resources 248

14.3.5 Group Resources 250

14.3.6 Subscription and Notification Channel Resources251

14.4 ETSI M2M Interactions Overview 252

14.5 Security in the ETSI M2M Framework 252

14.5.1 Key Management 252

14.5.2 Access Lists 254

14.6 Interworking with Machine Area Networks 255

14.6.1 Mapping M2M Networks to ETSI M2M Resources 256

14.6.2 Interworking with ZigBee 1.0 257

14.6.3 Interworking with C.12 262

14.6.4 Interworking with DLMS/COSEM 264

14.7 Conclusion on ETSI M2M 266

Part V KEY APPLICATIONS OF THE INTERNET OF THINGS

15 The Smart Grid 271

15.1 Introduction 271

15.2 The Marginal Cost of Electricity: Base and Peak Production272

15.3 Managing Demand: The Next Challenge of ElectricityOperators . . . and
Why M2M Will Become a Key Technology 273

15.4 Demand Response for Transmission System Operators (TSO)274

15.4.1 Grid-Balancing Authorities: The TSOs 274

15.4.2 Power Shedding: Who Pays What? 276

15.4.3 Automated Demand Response 277

15.5 Case Study: RTE in France 277

15.5.1 The Public-Network Stabilization and BalancingMechanisms in France 277

15.5.2 The Bidding Mechanisms of the Tertiary AdjustmentReserve 281

15.5.3 Who Pays for the Network-Balancing Costs? 283

15.6 The Opportunity of Smart Distributed Energy Management285

15.6.1 Assessing the Potential of Residential andSmall-Business Powerz Shedding (Heating/Cooling Control)286

15.6.2 Analysis of a Typical Home 287

15.6.3 The Business Case 293

15.7 Demand Response: The Big Picture 300

15.7.1 From Network Balancing to Peak-Demand Suppression300

15.7.2 Demand Response Beyond Heating Systems 304

15.8 Conclusion: The Business Case of Demand Response and DemandShifting is a Key Driver for the Deployment of the Internet ofThings 305

16 Electric Vehicle Charging 307

16.1 Charging Standards Overview 307

16.1.1 IEC Standards Related to EV Charging 310

16.1.2 SAE Standards 317

16.1.3 J2293 318

16.1.4 CAN – Bus 319

16.1.5 J2847: The New “Recommended Practice” forHigh-Level
Communication Leveraging the ZigBee Smart Energy Profile 2.0
320

16.2 Use Cases 321

16.2.1 Basic Use Cases 321

16.2.2 A More Complex Use Case: Thermal Preconditioning ofthe Car 323

16.3 Conclusion 324

Appendix A Normal Aggregate Power Demand of a Set ofIdentical
Heating Systems with Hysteresis 327

Appendix B Effect of a Decrease of Tref. The Danger ofCorrelation 329

Appendix C Changing Tref without IntroducingCorrelation 331

C.1 Effect of an Increase of Tref 331

Appendix D Lower Consumption, A Side Benefit of PowerShedding 333

Index 337

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