The present volume is the outcome of a session held at the 12th European Archaeological Association conference at Krakow in Poland, in September 2006. The purpose of this volume is to present several studies related to the issues of memory, tradition and identity, and highlight different dimensions. The aim is to offer fresh views with up-to-date approaches on specific examples which follow different theoretical and thematic paths. The papers in this volume are chronologically diverse, covering prehistory, the classical period, the middle ages and as well as modern times, and are presented in this order. Spatially, they are concentrated in the Aegean and Scandinavia, offering different geographical contexts.