The Reconstruction of Natural Zeolites: A New Approach to Announce Old Materials by their Synthesis

The Reconstruction of Natural Zeolites: A New Approach to Announce Old Materials by their Synthesis


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The Reconstruction of Natural Zeolites: A New Approach to Announce Old Materials by their Synthesis by Habbib Ghobarkar, Oliver Schäf, Yvan Massiani, Philippe Knauth

More than seventeen years have passed now since Glauco Gottardi and Ermano Galli 1 have published their remarkable book on «NATURAL ZEOLITES» where properties and features of naturally occuring phases then available have been compiled. Several new natural zeolites have been found since then, but also natural counterparts ofzeolites which have only been known as synthesis products. The natural formation conditions of zeolites could only be deduced and estimated from their geological environment at the time when NATURAL ZEOLITES has been published, as zeolite synthesis was mainly focused on procedures at low pressures such as those introduced by Barrer and co­ workers'. Natural zeolites, however, had only been obtained "occasionally" and systematic study to reconstruct these formation conditions has not been performed ever since. This book is focused on the synthesis of natural zeolites by simulating the natural synthesis conditions in the laboratory which are essentially different in means and results from those obtained by conventional synthesis methods. Although the synthesis in the laboratory has undoubtly a great number of advantages over nature such as the employment of proper precursors or the choice of pressure and temperature in a wide range, the synthesis time is very limited in respect to natural conditions: synthesis times ofyears or even tens ofyears which would be necessary to obtain synthesis results for some zeolites- e.g. at 4°C (deep sea conditions)­ are rather unrealistic.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781461348078
Publisher: Springer US
Publication date: 10/21/2012
Edition description: 2003
Pages: 146
Product dimensions: 6.30(w) x 9.45(h) x 0.01(d)

Table of Contents

1. Introduction.- 2. General Description of the Zeolites.- 2.1 Grouping of Zeolites.- 2.2 Chemical Classification of Zeolites.- 2.3 Secondary Building Units.- 2.4 Channel, Cage and Cavity Systems.- 2.5 Zeolitic Water Related to Cations.- 3. Hydrothermal Synthesis under Pressure.- 3.1 Physical Chemistry of Hydrothermal Synthesis Under Pressure.- 3.2 Experimental.- 4. Zeolite Identification by the Stereo-Comparator Method.- 4.1 Imaging Technique with the Scanning Electron Microscope.- 4.2 Image Evaluation with the Stereo-Comparator.- 4.3 The Calculation of x,y,z from Px and Py.- 4.4 Crystal Indexing.- 5.The Zeolite Minerals.- 5.1 Zeolites with 4=1 Chains.- 5.2 Zeolites with Single Connected 4-Ring Chains.- 5.3 Zeolites with Double Connected 4-Ring Chains.- 5.4 Zeolites with 6-Rings.- 5.5 Zeolites with 5–1 Building Units.- 5.6 Zeolites with 4–4=1 Building Units.- 6. Concluding Remarks.- 7. Acknowledgment.- 8. Index.- 9. References.

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