ISBN-10:
0674017307
ISBN-13:
9780674017306
Pub. Date:
01/02/1963
Publisher:
Harvard
The Sea, Volume 3: The Earth Beneath the Sea History

The Sea, Volume 3: The Earth Beneath the Sea History

by M. N. HillM. N. Hill

Hardcover

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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780674017306
Publisher: Harvard
Publication date: 01/02/1963
Series: The Sea , #3
Pages: 982
Product dimensions: 7.00(w) x 10.00(h) x 6.23(d)

Table of Contents

SECTION I. GEOPHYSICAL EXPLORATION.

CH. 1. ELEMENTARY THEORY OF SEISMIC REFRACTION AND REFLECTION MEASUREMENTS

by J. I. Ewing

1. Introduction

2. Reflected waves

3. Refracted waves

4. Computation of layer velocities and thicknesses

5. Shear waves and complex refracted waves

6. Some complications and deviations from simple theory

CH. 2. REFRACTION AND REFLECTION TECHNIQUES AND PROCEDURE

by G. G. Shor, Jr.

1. Introduction

2. Shooting techniques

3. Receiving techniques

4. Plan of operations

5. Miscellaneous variations

6. Reflection methods

CH. 3. SINGLE-STILE SEISMIC REFRACTION SHOOTING

by M. N. Hill

1. Introduction

2. Instrumentation

3. Operation

CH. 4. CONTINUOUS REFLECTION PROFILING

by J. B. Hersey

1. Introduction

2. Design

3. Operations at sea

4. Results

5. Interpretations

6. Geophysical measurements

7. Concluding remarks

CH. 5.THE UNCONSOLIDATED SEDIMENTS

by J. I. Ewing and J. E. Nafe

1. Introduction

2. Evidence for gradients and low-velocity sediments

3. Variable angle reflections

4. Normal-incidence reflections

5. Summary.

CH. 6. THE CRUSTAL ROCKS

by R. W. Raitt

1. Introduction

2. Layer 2

3. Layer 3

4. Average oceanic crust

CH. 7. THE MANTLE ROCKS

by J. I. Ewing

1. Introduction

2. Compressional-wave measurements

3. Shear-wave measurements

4. Summary

CH. 8. EXPLORATION OF SUB-OCEANIC STRUCTURE BY THE USE OF SEISMIC SURFACE WAVES

by J. Oliver and J. Dorman

1. Introduction

2. The general nature of seismic surface waves

3. Evidence from mantle surface waves

4. Evidence from crustal surface waves

5. Evidence from short-period surface waves

CH. 9. GRAVITY AT SEA

by J. Lamar Worzel and J. C. Harrison

1. Introduction

2. Methods and theory

3. Gravity observations and geological interpretations

CH. 10. THE MAGNETIC FIELD OVER THE OCEANS

by E. C. Bullard and R. G. Mason

1. Historical

2. Measurement of the magnetic field at sea

3. General features of the field

4. Reduction of magnetic observations

5. The magnetic properties of submarine rocks

6. The magnetic surveys of the north-east Pacific

7. The continental shelves

8. Seamounts and mid-ocean ridges

9. The deep trenches

CH. 11. THE FLOW OF HEAT THROUGH THE FLOOR OF THE OCEAN

by E. C. Bullard

1. Method

2. The temperature probe

3. The thermal properties of sediments

4. The results of heat-flow measurements

5. Future work

SECTION II. TOPOGRAPHY AND STRUCTURE.

CH. 12. TOPOGRAPHY OF THE DEEP-SEA FLOOR

by Bruce C. Heezen and H. W. Menard

1. Introduction

2. Outline of submarine topography

3. Summary of submarine topographic forms

CH. 13. CONTINENTAL SHELF AND SLOPE (CONTINENTAL MARGIN)

by A. Guilcher

1. Definitions

2. Topography of the continental shelf

3. Topography of the continental slope

4. Structure and origins of the continental margins

5. Conclusion

CH. 14. ABYSSAL PLAINS

by Bruce C. Heezen and A. S. Laughton

1. Introduction

2. Regional description

3. Trench abyssal plains

4. Archipelagic plains

5. Abyssal gaps, interplain channels, mid-ocean canyons and deep-sea channels

6. Sediments on the abyssal plains

7. Geophysical characteristics

8. Theories of the origin of the abyssal plains

CH. 15. OCEANIC ISLANDS, SEAMOUNTS, GUYOTS AND ATOLLS

by H. W. Menard and H. S. Ladd

1. Introduction

2. Oceanic islands

3. Seamounts

4. Guyots

5. Atolls

6. Submerged atolls

7. Oceanic volcanoes in geological time

8. Importance of islands and seamounts

CH. 16. THE MID-OCEANIC RIDGE

by Bruce C. Heezen and Maurice Ewing

1. Introduction

2. North Atlantic

3. South Atlantic

4. Indian Ocean

5. Indian and South Pacific Oceans

6. Iceland and the Norwegian Sea

7. Arctic Basin

8. Crustal structure

9. Origin

CH. 17. TRENCHES

by B. L. Fisher and H. H. Hess

1. Previous work

2. Topography of trenches

3. Structure of trenches

CH. 15. MICROTOPOGRAPHY

by A. S. Laughton

1. Introduction

2. Classification of microtopographic features

CH. 19. UNDERWATER PHOTOGRAPHY

by H. E. Edgerton

1. Introduction

2. Camera details

3. Cables and winches for cameras

CH. 20. SUBMARINE CANYONS

by F. P. Shepard

1. Introduction

2. Classification of submarine valleys

3. Canyon descriptions

4. East coast U.S. (New England type) canyons

5. Trough-shaped valleys

6. Delta foreset-slope gullies

7. Shallow straight-walled valleys of submarine escarpments

8. Origin of submarine canyons

9. Subaerial erosion

10. Pleistocene canyon cutting by turbidity currents

SECTION III. SEDIMENTATION.
CH. 21.BEACH AND NEARSHORE PROCESSES
PART I. MECHANICS OF MARINE SEDIMENTATION by R. A. Bagnold

1. Definition, origin and relevant physical properties

2. Transport during fall through the sea

3. Transport of sediment over the sea bed

4. Transport rate and fluid "power"

5. Auto-suspension of sediment: turbidity currents, etc.

6. Wave drift

7. Threshold of bed disturbance by fluid action.

PART II. LITTORAL PROCESSES by D. L. Inman and R. A. Bagnold

8. Introduction

9. Littoral profile: two-dimensional ease

10. Migration of sand grains by wave action

11. Littoral processes: three-dimensional case

12. Discussion.

CH. 22. SHALLOW-WATER CARBONATE SEDIMENTS
by B. N. Ginsburg, B. Michael Lloyd, K. W. Stockman and J. S. McCallum

1. Introduction

2. Types of skeletal particles

3. Skeletal particles in sediments

4. Distribution of skeletal particles

5. Discussion of the distribution of skeletal particles

6. Non-skeletal particles

7. Distribution of non-skeletal particles

CH. 23. BASIN SEDIMENTATION AND DIAGENESIS

by I. B. Kaplan and

S. C. Rittenberg

1. Introduction

2. Physical aspects of sedimentation

3. Diagenesis in sediments

4. Isotopic studies related to biological processes in sediments

5. Special problems

CH. 24. ESTUARIES, DELTAS, SHELF, SLOPE

by A. Guilcher

1. Estuaries, tidal marshes and flats, and deltas

2. Continental shelf

3. Continental slope

CH. 25. PELAGIC SEDIMENTS

by G. Arrhenius

1. Concept of pelagic sedimentation

2. Composition

3. Productivity control of pelagic sedimentation

4. Physical stratification

5. Topographic and tectonic control of sedimentation

CH. 26. CLAY-MINERAL DISTRIBUTIONS IN THE PACIFIC OCEAN

by J. J. Griffin and E. D. Goldberg

1. Introduction

2. The clay minerals

3. Surface distribution of clay minerals

4. Vertical distribution

5. Summary

CH. 27. TURBIDITY CURRENTS

by Bruce C. Heezen

1. Early views

2. Full-scale experiment

3. Alternative explanations

4. Physiographic evidence

5. Sediments.

6. Requirements of turbidity currents

7. Tectonic significance of turbidity currents

8. Biological significance of turbidity currents

9. Other processes of deep-sea erosion and transportation

10. Conclusion

CH. 28. ORGANIC TRANSPORTATION OF MARINE SEDIMENTS

by K. G. Emery

1. Introduction

2. Kelp

3. Driftwood

4. Sea mammals

5. Fishes

6. Birds

7. Invertebrates

8. Comparison with inorganic transporting agents

9. Criteria for recognition of rafting agent

CH. 29. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF MARINE SEDIMENTS

by J. E. Nafe and C. L. Drake

I. Introduction

2. Relationships among observables

3. Methods of measurement

4. Summary of results

5. Conclusions

CH. 30. AGE DETERMINATION IN SEDIMENTS BY NATURAL RADIOACTIVITY

by F. F. Koczy

1. Introduction

2. Theoretical considerations

3. Geochemical considerations

4. Practical methods of age determination

5. Rate of sedimentation

CH. 31. CROSS-CORRELATION OF DEEP-SEA SEDIMENT CORES AND DETERMINATION OF RELATIVE RATES OF SEDIMENTATION BY MICRO-
PALEONTOLOGICAL TECHNIQUES

by D. B. Ericson

1. Introduction

2. Methods of correlation

3. Time-equivalence of the faunal zones

4. Some examples

HISTORY

CH. 32. THE ORIGIN OF LIFE

by Stanley L. Miller

1. Early considerations of the problem

2. The primitive atmosphere

3. The synthesis of organic compounds

4. The origin of life

5. Evolution of early organisms

6. Life on other planets

CH. 33. THE PRESERVED RECORD: PALEONTOLOGY OF PELAGIC SEDIMENTS

by W. R. Riedel

1. Introduction

2. Fossils of deep-ocean basins versus those of shallow waters

3. Objectives of deep-sea paleontology

4. Shelled pelagic micro-organisms and their distribution

5. Interpretation of Quaternary microfossil assemblages

6. Mieropaleontological determination of ages

7. Pre-Quaternary paleoceanography

CH. 34. THE PLEISTOCENE RECORD

by C. Emiliani and R. F. Flint

1. Introduction

2. Continental stratigraphy

3. Marine stratigraphy

4. Summary

AUTHOR INDEX

SUBJECT INDEX

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