When the United Nations' Charter was signed in San Francisco in 1945, the number of African member states of the Organisation was only 4. By the end of 1960 it had risen to 22. Today it is 41. How has this come about? The answer is given in this valuable book by Dr. Yassin EI-Ayouty. The handful of Asian and African countries who had the privilege of foundation membership made it their business to see to it that their brethren who were still under the colonial yoke attained their freedom and independence as soon as possible and, in the meanwhile, that they were treated with decency and fairness by their colonial masters. It was a tough assignment. The struggle was long, requiring a great deal of patience and endurance. It was at times fierce, requiring much dogged resolution. It also called for the deployment of intellectual agility ofthe highest order. Fortunately all these qualities were available in the rep resentatives of Asia and Africa who led the great struggle. These dis tinguished delegates also demonstrated a wonderful degree of solidarity which has, happily, become an Afro-Asian tradition at the United Nations. The battle began even before the Organisation had itself become a fact. It would have been a more difficult struggle, had there been no provision in the Charter at all in respect of colonies, by whatever name called.
|Edition description:||Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1971|
|Product dimensions:||6.10(w) x 9.25(h) x 0.03(d)|
Table of ContentsI Ideological Background of the Interpretation of the United Nations Role Toward Non-Self-Governing Territories.- I: The Effects of World War II on the Afro-Asian Position at the San Francisco Conference.- A. Impact of World War II on the Colonial Problem.- B. Anti-Colonial Declarations and Principles Formulated During the War.- C. Evolution of Chapter XI at the San Francisco Conference.- 1. Article 22 of the Covenant of the League of Nations.- 2. Main Proposals at San Francisco.- 3. “General Policy” in the Working Paper.- 4. Adoption of the Declaration.- 2: The Declaration Regarding Non-Self-Governing Territories and the Concepts of International Responsibility for Colonial Administration.- A. Nature of the Obligations under Chapter XI.- 1. The Text.- 2. Terminological Ambiguity.- 3. Institutional Effects of Ambiguity.- 4. The Afro-Asian Juridical and Non-Juridical Approaches.- B. Conceptual Evolution of International Accountability.- 1. The Beginnings of International Accountability Under Chapter XI.- 2. International Accountability Versus Domestic Jurisdiction.- 3. Changing Climate of Colonialism (1947–1948).- C. The “Paramountcy of Interests” and the “Sacred Trust”.- 1. The “Paramountcy of Interests”.- 2. The “Sacred Trust”.- a) Origins of the Concept.- b) The Belgian Thesis: Its Tenets and Weaknesses.- D. The Right of Self-Determination.- II The United Nations’ Method of Organization for Dealing with the Non-Self-Governing Territories.- 3: The Afro-Asian Attitude Towards the Creation of One-Year Committees on Information from Non-Self-Governing Territories: 1946–1948.- A. Steps Leading to the Creation of a Committee on Information.- B. Creation of the Ad Hoc Committee in 1946.- C. Creation of the Special Committee on Information in 1947.- D. The 1948 Arguments Regarding the Duration, Composition and Competence of the Special Committee on Information.- 4: Impact of the Afro-Asian Position on the Establishment and Continuation of Committees on Information for Three-Year Periods: 1949–1958.- A. The 1949 Debate and the Establishment of the Special Committee on a Three-Year Basis.- B. Effects of Assembly Resolutions of the Fifth and Sixth Sessions on Functions and Powers.- 1. Assembly Resolutions Adopted During the Fifth and Sixth Sessions (1950–1952).- 2. Manifestations of Procedural, Functional and Power Growth in 1952.- C. The 1952 Renewal of the Committee on Information.- D. The Committee’s Renewal in 1955.- 1. Background of Assembly Resolutions.- 2. Renewal of the Committee on Information.- E. The Last Renewal of the Committee for a Three-Year Period in 1958.- III The United Nations’ Method of Procedure for Dealing with the Non-Self-Governing Territories.- 5: The Afro-Asian Emphasis on the General Assembly’s Competence in the Determination of Non-Self-Governing Territories.- A. The Evolution of the Assembly’s Competence in the Study of Factors (1946–1953).- 1. The Initial Search for a Definition of “Non-Self-Governing”.- 2. The Assembly Decides to Study the Factors (1949).- 3. The First Interim List of Factors (1951–52).- a) Report of the Special Committee on Information.- b) Recommendations of Sub-Committee 9 of the Fourth Committee.- 4. The 1952 Ad Hoc Committee on Factors.- 5. The Last Ad Hoc Committee on the Study of Factors (1953).- B. The Formulation of Principles (1960).- 1. Background Developments.- 2. The Special Committee of Six on the Transmission of Information under Article 73 (e) of the Charter.- C. Application of Factors and Principles to Cases of Cessation and Commencement of the Transmission of Information: Selected Cases.- 1. The General Assembly and Questions of Cessation (1946–1959).- a) General Review.- b) A Selected Case: Puerto Rico (1953).- 2. The General Assembly and Questions of Commencement (1956–1963).- a) General Review.- b) A Selected Case: Southern Rhodesia (1961–1962).- 6: The New Afro-Asian Formula for Swift Decolonization and the Follow-up of Chapter XI.- A. Adoption of the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples (1960).- B. Dissolution of the Committee on Information.- 1. The New Institutional Arrangements.- 2. The Committee’s Dissolution (1963).- IV Conclusions.- 7: Recapitulation of the Main Afro-Asian Contributions.- A. Effect of the Afro-Asian Action on the Evolution of Chapter XI.- B. Broad Conclusions.- 8: Developments from 1963 to 1970.- A. Introductory Comment.- B. Main developments of the 1960’s.- Territories Which Became Independent Since The Establishment of the United Nations.- I. Trust and Non-Self-Governing Territories.- II. Other Territories.- III. Guide Showing Original Names of the Territories.