By the winter of 1916/17, World War I had reached a deadlock. While the Allies commanded greater resources and fielded more soldiers than the Central Powers, German armies had penetrated deep into Russia and France, and tenaciously held on to their conquered empire. Hoping to break the stalemate on the western front, the exhausted Allies sought to bring the neutral United States into the conflict.
A golden opportunity to force American intervention seemed at hand when British naval intelligence intercepted a secret telegram detailing a German alliance offer to Mexico. In it, Berlin's foreign secretary, Arthur Zimmermann, offered his country's support to Mexico for re-conquering "the lost territory in Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona" in exchange for a Mexican attack on the United States, should the latter enter the war on the side of the Allies. The British handed a copy of the Telegram to the American government, which in turn leaked it to the press. On March 1, 1917, the Telegram made headline news across the United States, and five weeks later, America entered World War I.
Based on an examination of virtually all available German, British, and U.S. government records, this book presents the definitive account of the Telegram and questions many traditional views on the origins, cryptanalysis, and impact of the German alliance scheme. While the Telegram has often been described as the final step in a carefully planned German strategy to gain a foothold in the western hemisphere, this book argues that the scheme was a spontaneous initiative by a minor German foreign office official, which gained traction only because of a lack of supervision and coordination at the top echelon of the German government. On the other hand, the book argues, American and British secret services had collaborated closely since 1915 to bring the United States into the war, and the Telegram's interception and disclosure represented the crowning achievement of this clandestine Anglo-American intelligence alliance. Moreover, the book explicitly challenges the widely accepted notion that the Telegram's publication in the U.S. press rallied Americans for war. Instead, it contends that the Telegram divided the public by poisoning the debate over intervention, and by failing to offer peace-minded Americans a convincing rationale for supporting the war. The book also examines the Telegram's effect on the memory of World War I through the twentieth century and beyond.
|Publisher:||Naval Institute Press|
|Product dimensions:||6.20(w) x 9.20(h) x 1.20(d)|
About the Author
Thomas Boghardt grew up in Germany. He has lived in Florida, France, Italy, and England where he went to university. After graduation he taught briefly in Pakistan, then came to Washington, D.C. in 2002 on a postgraduate fellowship at Georgetown University. He subsequently worked for six years as a historian for the International Spy Museum. In 2010, he joined the U.S. Army Center of Military History in Washington, D.C. as a senior historian. He lives with his wife and two young children in Bethesda, Maryland.
Table of Contents
List of Illustrations ix
1 The Zimmermann Telegram in History 9
2 Arthur Zimmermann 23
3 The Mexican Imbroglio 33
4 The German Quest for Japan 48
5 Drafting the Telegram 59
6 "Blinker" Hall 80
7 Interception and Decryption 90
8 A Special Relationship 108
9 The Smoking Gun 129
10 Congress Debates the Telegram 145
11 The American Public 159
12 War 181
13 Fallout in Berlin 191
14 Scapegoat 205
15 Aftermath in Mexico 217
16 A German Reckoning 225
17 Hall's Intelligence Legacy 234
Names and Terms 253
List of Abbreviations 263