Ethnodevelopment is a well-established concept in the field of development studies. Despite its relevance to tourism initiatives and processes in the Global South, it continues to be an underutilised concept in the field.
This book bridges this gap, presenting an original conceptual framework to study the relationship between tourism and ethnodevelopment. It focuses on the processes of inclusion, empowerment, self-expression and self-determination to explore the effects of tourism initiatives on the identities, cultural resilience, livelihoods and economic opportunities of ethnic minority communities. Chapters explore a range of concepts and issues such as gender, authenticity, indigenous knowledge, tradition, the commodification of culture, community-based tourism, local entrepreneurship, cultural heritage, and tourism and the environment. Drawing on rich primary research conducted across South East Asia and South and Central America the book offers detailed evaluations of the successes and failures of various tourism policies and practices.
This book makes a valuable contribution for students, scholars, practitioners and policy-makers alike interested in tourism, development studies, geography and anthropology.
About the Author
Ismar Borges de Lima is Professor of Regional Development and Population Studies at the Federal University of Southern and Southeastern Pará (UNIFESSPA), Brazil. He is also Director of the International Foundation for Research on Science, Nature and Tourism, RECINATUR, Brazil and Member of MULTIAMAZON/UERR Lab for Research in the Amazonian Basin. He holds a PhD in Geography and Tourism from the University of Waikato, New Zealand, and has held positions as a postdoctoral researcher and Adjunct Lecturer at the School of Business and Tourism, Southern Cross University, Australia.
Victor T. King is Emeritus Professor in the School of Languages, Cultures and Societies, University of Leeds, UK; Professorial Research Associate in the Centre of South East Asian Studies, School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, UK; Adjunct Professor in the Center for Ethnic Studies and Development, Faculty of Social Sciences, Chiang Mai University, Thailand; and Distinguished Visiting Fellow in the Institute of Asian Studies, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Brunei.
Table of Contents
1. Tourism and Ethnodevelopment: a Conceptual Introduction
Victor T. King and Ismar Borges de Lima
Part 1: Institutionalized Ethnic Tourism and Advances in Ethnodevelopment: Policies, Communities, Organizations
2. Development for whom? Tourism Used as a social Intervention for the Development of Indigenous/Rural Communities in Natural Protected Areas.
Gerda Warnholtz and David Barkin
3. Territorial Management and Brazilian Public Policy for Ethnotourism in Indigenous Land: Pataxó Case in Bahia.
Carlos Alfredo Ferraz de Oliveira, Ismar Borges de Lima and Márcia Teixeira Falcão,
4. Empowerment through community-based ecotourism in a globalised world: global-local nexus – Three Thai Villages as case study
Nantira Pookhao, Robyn Bushell, Mary Hawkins and Russell Staiff
5. Environmental Stewardship, Indigenous Tourism Planning and the Fakcha Llakta Community: an Ethnic Endogenous Development Model in Otavalo, Imbabura, Ecuador
Rolando Lomas Tapia, Carmen Trujillo and Ismar Borges de Lima
6. Missio-tourism amongst ethnic Karen in Thailand: A bridge to empowerment and self-determination or promotion of assistencialism?
7. Empowerment, Participation and Barriers: Ethnic Minority Community-based Ecotourism Development in Laos PDR
Eerang Park, Toulakham Phandanouvong, Phouvanh Xaysena and Sangkyun Kim
Part 2: Ethnic entrepreneurship, Tourism and Ethnodevelopment
8. Indigenous Micro Tourism Businesses, Ethnodevelopment and NGOs: Projectitis in Lago Budi in Chile
9. Understanding host community’s experiences of creating small autochthonous tourism enterprises in Lombok, Indonesia
Akhmad Saufi, Sacha Reid and Anoop Patiar
10. Community Entrepreneurship, Female Elite and Cultural Inheritance: Mosuo Women's Empowerment and Hand Weaving Factory
Yang Ningdong and La Mingqing
11. Sámi Indigenous Tourism Empowerment in the Nordic Countries through Labelling Systems: Strengthening Ethnic Enterprises and Activities
Cecilia de Bernardi, Outi Kugapi and Monika Lüthje
Part 3: Empowerment approaches in Ethnic Tourism: Issues of Authenticity, Cultural Commodification and Environment, Gender.
12. Exotic Tourist, Ethnic Hosts: a Critical Approach to Tourism and Ethnodevelopment
Tuhina Ganguly and Mike Grimshaw
13. The legacy of black people and dialectic inclusion-exclusion in the building of the cultural heritage of a tourist destination in Vale do Paraíba
Clarissa Gagliardi and Rosana Bignami
14. Tourism in the Fond Gens Libre Indigenous Community in Saint Lucia: Examining Impacts and Empowerment
Lorraine Nicholas and Brijesh Thapa
15. Enthnodevelopment in the Kalunga’s Community-based Tourism: From a Past marked by Slavery to Ethnic Group Struggles for Empowerment and Recognition
Thais Alves Marinho
16. Tourism and Ethnodevelopment, the Advances in the Field: Concluding Highlights
Victor T. King and Ismar Borges de Lima