Do contemporary children have busy "leisure-diaries" that approximate the appointment diary of real-life managers? Do present-day children spend their leisure time mainly with peers at the expense of spending time with their parents? These issues are dealt with within a cross-cultural comparison between Dutch and German 10 to 15 year-olds. In Germany as well as the Netherlands, highly differentiated leisure patterns are found.
Table of ContentsList of Contents.- 1: Young adolescents and their leisure.- 1.1 Introduction.- 1.2 Position of the present study within contemporary discourses on childhood and youth.- The developmental psychological and socialization theoretical discourse.- The childhood and youth sociological discourse.- 1.3 Contemporary sociological debates on the leisure of young adolescents.- Leisure Activities.- Parents.- Peers.- Social Exclusion.- 1.4 Research questions and research context.- 1.5 The structure of the present study.- 2: Method.- 2.1 Introduction.- I Methodological considerations.- 2.2 Cross-cultural research.- Construct bias.- Method bias.- Item bias.- 2.3 Cross-sectional age research.- II The implementation of the present study.- 2.4 The survey.- Family relations.- Leisure activities.- Peer relations.- 2.5 Translation issues.- 2.6 Sample and administration procedure.- 2.7 Methods of analyses.- 2.8 Conclusion.- The translation process: Meaning equivalence.- Construct equivalence.- Sample and procedure equivalence.- Wording: Child and adolescent speech.- and layout.- Researchers present.- 3: The leisure patterns of young adolescents.- 3.1 Introduction.- 3.2 Leisure research in the Netherlands: A bird’s-eye view.- Social-pedagogical leisure studies: The role of social status.- Sociologically oriented quantitative leisure studies: The role of age and gender.- Social-ecological leisure studies: The leisure of pre-adolescents and adolescents.- Childhood sociological studies: The transition from childhood into adolescence.- 3.3 The German parallel study.- 3.4 Research questions and expectations.- 3.5 Results.- Unorganized activities.- Area 1:The street-computer area.- Area 2: The cultural area.- Area 3: The youth-cultural-cultural area.- Area 4: The youth-cultural-street-computer area.- Organized activities.- Organized activities on weekdays.- Organized weekend activities.- Organized and unorganized activities.- Area 1: many unorganized- few organized activities.- Area 2: many unorganized-many organized activities.- Area 3: few unorganized-many organized activities.- Area 4: few unorganized-few organized activities.- Leisure clubs.- Leisure stress and parental help.- 3.6 Discussion and cross-cultural comparison.- Cross-cultural comparison.- Organized activities.- Unorganized activities.- Area 1: street-computer area.- Area 2: the cultural area.- Area 3: The youth-cultural-cultural area.- Area 4: The youth-cultural-street-computer area.- Appendix to chapter 3.- 4: The role of parents and peers in the leisure activities of young adolescents.- 4.1 Introduction.- 4.2 Theoretical approaches in leisure and peer studies.- Structural-functionalism: The role of age.- Sub-cultural studies: The role of gender and social class.- Childhood sociology: The role of parents and peers.- 4.3 Research questions and expectations.- 4.4 Results.- Area 1: The family-peer group area.- Area 2: The single-family area.- Area 3: The single-friendship area.- Area 4: The peer group-friendship area.- Parental interference in children’s leisure.- 4.5 Discussion and cross-cultural comparison.- Cross-cultural comparison.- Area 3: the single-friendship area.- Area 4: the peer group-friendship area.- Appendix to chapter 4.- 5: Parent-child relationships in early adolescence.- 5.1 Introduction.- 5.2 Empirical research on the parent-child relationship in the Netherlands.- The immediate social surroundings.- The broader social context.- 5.3 The German parallel study.- Parent-centeredness of everyday life.- Parental consideration of children’s wishes and interests.- Parental attentiveness to children’s conduct.- Parental disciplinary actions.- Children’s strategies of perseverance.- Parent-centeredness of everyday life.- Parental consideration of children’s wishes and interests.- Parental attentiveness to children’s conduct.- Parental disciplinary actions.- Children’s strategies of perseverance.- 5.4 Research questions and expectations.- 5.5 Results.- Comparing component solutions: Methodological aspects.- Comparing component solutions: Content-analytical aspects.- Parent-centeredness of everyday life.- Parental consideration of children’s wishes a interests (child orientation).- Parental attentiveness to children’s conduct.- Parental disciplinary actions.- Children’s strategies of perseverance.- Parental interference in leisure activity choices.- 5.6 Discussion.- Appendix to chapter 5: Dutch and German component loadings.- 6: Discussion and conclusions.- 6.1 Introduction.- 6.2 Theoretical gain and pedagogical relevance of the present study.- 6.2.1 Main conclusions: Three theoretical notions.- Leisure “pre-programming”: The backseat generation?.- The advancement of adolescence: Precocious kids?.- Child orientation: Attentive negotiation-directed parents.- Cross-cultural comparison: Cultural characteristics.- 6.2.2 Empirical-based conceptual patterns.- Pattern 1: The Leisure Explorers.- Pattern 2: The Leisure Learners.- Pattern 3: The Leisure Consumers.- Pattern 4: The Leisure Combiners.- 6.3 Recommendations for future research.- References.