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The James Beard Cookbook
By James Beard
OPEN ROAD INTEGRATED MEDIACopyright © 1987 The Estate of James Beard
All rights reserved.
Cooking Tools and Terms
Basic Cooking Equipment
Large carving knife
Large chefs knife with 10- or 12-inch blade
Chef's knife with 8-inch blade
Small knives for general use
Serrated bread knife
SPOONS AND FORKS
Wooden spoons of various sizes
Slotted or perforated spoon
Long-handled spoon for basting and stirring
2 or 3 regular kitchen spoons
Fork and spoon for tossing salad
1 large two-pronged fork
2 or 3 regular kitchen forks
Small fork for removing items from small-necked bottles
CARVING AND CHOPPING BOARDS
Large carving board, about 16 inches
Smaller carving board, about 12 inches
Small chopping boards
DISHES AND BOWLS
Nest of mixing bowls of various sizes
Molds of various sizes
1 or 2 kitchen platters
Ovenproof serving dishes
Shallow baking dishes
Individual ramekins and pudding molds
POTS AND PANS
Saucepans of various sizes, with lids
Enamel pan for boiling eggs
Large, deep braising pan with tight lid
Steamer with rack
Medium-sized sauté pan with lid
Large, heavy sauté pan with lid
Skillets of various sizes
Pan and basket for deep-frying
Roasting pan and rack
2 or 3 casseroles of various sizes
Tube cake pan
Jelly roll pan
Flan pans with removable bottoms
Deep dish for quiches and pies
Measuring cups, for liquid and dry measure
Mortar and pestle
Pastry tube and attachments
Strainers or colanders of various sizes
Wire whisks of various sizes
Electric mixer with attachments
Electric hand beater
Electric deep fryer
Weights and Measurements
3 teaspoons—1 tablespoon
4 tablespoons—¼ cup
1 cup—½ pint
4 cups—1 quart
4 quarts—1 gallon
1 ounce—1/8 cup or 2 tablespoons
2 ounces—¼ cup or 4 tablespoons
8 ounces—1 cup
TERMS FROM OLD RECIPES
1 wineglassful—¼ cup
1 gill—½ cup
1 saltspoon—¼ teaspoon
Butter the size of an egg—¼ cup or 2 ounces
White, 1 pound:
2 cups, uncooked—6 cups, cooked
Kidney, 1 pound:
2 2/3 cups, uncooked—6¼ cups, cooked
Lima, 1 pound:
3 cups, uncooked—7 cups, cooked
BUTTER, LARD OR VEGETABLE FAT
1 ounce—2 tablespoons
2 ounces—¼ cup or 4 tablespoons
¼ pound—½ cup
½ pound—1 cup
1 pound—2 cups
1 pound—4 cups, grated
1 ounce—1 square of baking chocolate
4 to 6 whole eggs, shelled—1 cup
Whites of 8 to 10 eggs—1 cup
White: 1 pound—4 cups, sifted
Cake: 1 pound—4½ cups, sifted
Whole wheat: 1 pound—3½ cups
1 tablespoon—1 envelope
Almonds: 1 pound, unshelled—1½ cups nut meats
Pecans: 1 pound, unshelled—2¼ cups nut meats
Walnuts: 1 pound, unshelled—2 cups nut meats
Macaroni, 8 ounces:
2 cups, uncooked—4 cups, cooked
Noodles, 8 ounces:
2 ½ cups, uncooked—4 to 5 cups, cooked
Spaghetti, 8 ounces:
2 ½ cups, uncooked—4 to 5 cups, cooked
1 pound, uncooked:
2 cups, uncooked—6 cups, cooked
Brown: 1 pound—2 ¼ cups
Granulated: 1 pound—2 ¼ cups
Powdered: 1 pound—2 ¾ cups
À La Grecque: Vegetables cooked in an oil and vinegar liquid with seasonings added. The term means "in the Greek style."
À La Mode: Usually used to mean topped with ice cream. This is an American distortion of the French term meaning "in the manner of," generally followed by another word, as in "à la mode de Caen"—"the way it is done in Caen."
À La Russe: In the Russian style. Salad à la Russe is a mixture of vegetables or vegetables and meats blended with mayonnaise.
Acidulated Water: Water with vinegar or lemon juice added. Fresh vegetables and fruits are often soaked in acidulated water before cooking. Use 1 tablespoon of acid to 1 quart of water.
Al Dente: Literally, "to the tooth." An Italian term used to describe food, especially pasta but also vegetables, cooked so it is still firm to the bite.
Aspic: Jellied broth used to make molds of cold vegetables, meats or fish: or to mask cold foods.
Au Gratin: Any casserole baked with a bread-crumb topping. Most people think this term means with cheese. This confusion probably stems from the fact that grated cheese is often mixed with the crumb topping.
Au Jus: In the natural juices. Meat au jus is meat served plain with pan juices, rather than with other sauce or thickened gravy.
Au Pot: Means "in the pot." Generally a chicken or piece of meat cooked in a large pot with water or broth.
Bain Marie: The French double boiler.
Bake: To cook in the oven.
Barbecue: To cook over an open fire—that is, by direct heat.
Barbecue Sauce: A highly seasoned sauce used to baste food while it is barbecuing.
Bard: To wrap with fat or a fatty substance, such as salt pork. (Often confused with Lard. See page 11.) Lean pieces of meat are often barded with fat—wrapped in suet or salt pork or bacon—before cooking, to keep them from getting too dry.
Baste: To spoon or brush liquid or melted fat over food as it cooks. Basting keeps food moist, helps flavor it and gives it a nice glaze or finish.
Beat: To stir thoroughly with a spoon or eggbeater. The term implies a vigorous mixing.
Beurre Manié: Butter and flour kneaded together and formed into pea-sized balls. Used to thicken sauces.
Bind: To hold a mixture of foods together with mayonnaise or other sauce.
Blanch: To pour boiling water over food and then drain almost immediately; or to parboil in water for a minute. Nuts and tomatoes are blanched in order to loosen their skins.
Blanquette: A light stew; one made without browning the meat first.
Blaze: To pour liquor over food and light it. To be sure liquor will flame, it is sometimes wise to heat it slightly before pouring it over the food. This is not necessary if the food itself is piping hot. (Also see Flambé,page 11.)
Blend: To mix thoroughly, or to purée thoroughly in an electric blender or processor.
Boil: To cook in liquid at the boiling or bubbling point.
Bone: To remove the bones from meat or fish.
Boned and Rolled: Certain meat cuts are boned and then rolled up and tied for roasting.
Bouillon: A clear broth made by cooking meat, fish or vegetables in liquid and then straining the liquid. Packaged bouillon cubes, sold in grocery stores, may be used as a substitute.
Bouquet Garni: A selection of herbs placed in a small bag of cheesecloth and put in a broth or stock to flavor it while cooking. The bag is removed and discarded when the broth is done.
Braise: To brown meat or vegetables in fat, then add a small amount of liquid and finish cooking tightly covered at a low temperature. A tenderizing method good for tougher cuts of meat.
Bread (To Bread): To coat meat or fish with crumbs.
Bread Crumbs: Soft bread crumbs used for stuffing are made with day-old bread; fine bread crumbs, with bread that is dried out and rolled or grated. For detailed instructions, see Bread chapter, page 38.
Brochette: Small skewers on which pieces of meat, fish or vegetables are cooked. Food en brochette is generally broiled.
Broil: To cook under or over direct heat. This can be done in the broiler section of the oven, directly under the heating unit; or over a wood, coal or charcoal fire. There are also portable electric and gas broilers.
Broth: The liquid left after simmering vegetables, meat, fish or other foods. Also used to mean a thin soup.
Brown (To Brown): To cook food in a little fat until brown.
Brush: To daub the surface of food lightly with some liquid or fat. You may use a pastry brush for this job or simply dribble the ingredient on with a spoon. Examples: brushing bread with melted butter; brushing top pie crusts with beaten egg.
Buttered Crumbs: Fine crumbs cooked with melted butter until saturated. Used to top casseroles or to dress vegetables.
Canapés: Small pieces of fried or toasted bread spread with highly seasoned toppings. Used as appetizers.
Caramelize: To melt sugar until it turns liquid and brown. Example: Sugar is caramelized to coat the cups or mold for Caramel Custard.
Charcoal-Broiled: Broiled with the heat of a charcoal fire, directly over or in front of the coals. For instructions on how to build a charcoal fire, see page 184.
Chop: To cut into small pieces. You may use a food chopper or a sharp, heavy knife. A large French knife with triangular blade is the best tool for chopping. Place the food to be chopped on a heavy chopping board or worktable. Rest the knife, blade down, on the food, and hold the point of the knife with your left hand. With your right hand, hold the handle and move the blade up and down, swinging the knife right and left in an arc, chopping as you go.
Do not use a meat grinder for chopping.
Clarify: To clear a broth of bits of food or cloudy substances by adding egg white and eggshell and beating them in over heat. The broth is then strained; the food particles cling to the egg and are separated from the liquid.
Compote: A mixture of fresh or cooked fruits.
Condiment: This term refers generally to seasonings and flavorings. It is used more specifically to mean prepared sauces or flavorful accompaniments for foods.
Consommé: A clear, highly seasoned broth made from meat.
Corned: Cured by soaking in a salt solution or brine. Example: corned beef.
Cornstarch: A starch, made from corn, used to thicken puddings and some sauces. Used for thickening in many oriental dishes.
Court Bouillon: A seasoned broth used for poaching fish.
Cream (To Cream): To rub ingredients together until smooth, as in creaming butter and sugar when making a cake.
Croutons: Small toasted cubes of bread.
Cube: To cut into small cubes.
Curdling: Occasionally sauces or puddings made with eggs will separate into a watery liquid with thick, almost solid, particles in it. This is known as curdling. The sauce is still edible, but the appearance is unappetizing.
Cut In: To cut fat into flour when making pastry.
Deviled: Combined with sharp seasonings and cooked with a crumb topping. Or crumbed, cooked and served with a sharp (devil) sauce.
Dice: To cut into very small cubes.
Disjoint: To cut a fowl into pieces at the joints. Example: to prepare a chicken for frying.
Dot: To cover with small bits of fat. Example: to dot a casserole with butter.
Dredge: To cover thoroughly with a dry substance, such as flour, cornmeal or crumbs.
Dress: To mix with sauce or flavoring just before serving. Examples: to dress cooked vegetables with melted butter; or to dress fresh greens with salad dressing.
Drippings: The juices in the pan from roasting meats.
Dust: To cover very lightly with a dry ingredient. Example: to dust the top of a sweet roll with sugar.
Fillet or Filet: A cut of meat or fish without bones. Also used as a verb: to fillet, meaning to prepare such a piece of meat or fish.
Fine Herbes: Mixed herbs, chopped together and used for seasoning. Classically, includes parsley, chives, tarragon and chervil.
Flake: To break into small pieces. Example: to flake fish with a fork.
Flambé: To pour liquor over food and light it. This is the French term for Blaze (see page 8). If flambéing meat, make sure that all fat has been removed from the pan juices. The initial flaming-up can be sudden. Also make certain there is nothing above that can catch fire, and avert your face to avoid singed eyebrows.
Fold: To combine two ingredients by turning one over into the other, using a folding motion, with a spoon. For exact instructions, see Soufflés, page 358.
Freshly Ground Black Pepper: Peppercorns ground in a pepper grinder as needed.
Fricassee: A stew of meat or fowl, which may or may not be browned and then cooked in a liquid. The liquid is thickened and served over the meat.
Fry: To cook on top of the stove in a large amount of fat.
Garnish: To decorate. Example: to decorate cold fish platters with hard-cooked eggs, parsley, etc.
Glaze: To give a glossy finish to food. This is done in different ways: fish or vegetables may be covered with a sauce or grated cheese, or both, and glazed under the broiler flame; onions or carrots may be steamed in butter and glazed with a little sugar added at the last minute.
The term also refers to covering cold meat or fish with aspic.
Grate: To rub on a grater, cutting food into minute bits.
Grill: To broil. Often used to mean cooking on a charcoal grill. The term comes from the rack (or grill) on which the food is cooked.
Grind: To put through a grinder, cutting the food into tiny particles.
Hors D'oeuvre: Appetizers. Generally served with cocktails.
Julienne: Cut into thin, long strips.
Knead: To press and stretch dough with the hands or with a dough hook. (See instructions, pages 39–40.)
Lard: The rendered and clarified fat of pork. Used as a cooking fat and sometimes as shortening in pie dough.
Lard (To Lard): To insert thin strips of fat into the flesh of meat using a special larding needle. (Often confused with Bard. See page 7.) Fats used for this process are usually salt pork or bacon.
Legumes: Dried vegetables used in soups and casseroles. Also used as vegetables. Examples: dried lima beans, dried white pea beans.
Liaison: A thickening agent used to make a sauce. (See pages 347–348.)
Macedoine: A mixture of vegetables or fruits. Usually the ingredients are cut fairly fine.
Marinade: A seasoned sauce in which meats or other foods are soaked. Example: marinade for charcoal-grilled beef.
Marinate: To soak food in liquid, such as a marinade.
Mask: To coat or cover thoroughly, usually with a sauce or aspic.
Meringue: Stiffly beaten egg white sweetened with sugar and used as a topping on pies and certain other pastries. The pie or pastry is then put in a low oven until the egg white (meringue) browns. Meringue is sometimes shaped into cups and baked at very low heat until firm. These meringue cups are then filled with ice cream or fruit.
Mince: To chop very fine.
Pan-Broil: To cook in a skillet with little or no fat added. The pan is sometimes rubbed very lightly with fat or oil.
Parboil: To cook partially in boiling salted water or other liquid. Example: Onions are sometimes parboiled before being added to a mixture that will not require enough additional cooking to cook a raw onion. Aged hams are parboiled before baking.
Pare: To peel off the outer skin.
Pasta: The generic Italian term for spaghetti, macaroni and noodles in all their various forms.
Pâté: A paste usually made of meat or seafood. Pâtés are used as a spread for toast or crackers or they are cut in thin slices and served as a first course. They resemble very fine meat loaf.
Petits Fours: Small, rich cookies or fancy cakes.
Pilaf: Rice cooked with flavorings and sometimes broth.
Excerpted from The James Beard Cookbook by James Beard. Copyright © 1987 The Estate of James Beard. Excerpted by permission of OPEN ROAD INTEGRATED MEDIA.
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