The history of Alaska is filled with stories of new land and new riches and ever present are new people with competing views over how the valuable resources should be used: Russians exploiting a fur empire; explorers checking rival advances; prospectors stampeding to the clarion call of "Gold!"; soldiers battling out a decisive chapter in world war; oil wildcatters looking for a different kind of mineral wealth; and always at the core of these disputes is the question of how the land is to be used and by whom.
While some want Alaska to remain static, others are in the vanguard of change. Alaska: Saga of a Bold Land shows that there are no easy answers on either side and that Alaska will always be crossing the next frontier.
About the Author
Walter R. Borneman is the author of Alaska: Saga of a Bold Land, 1812: The War That Forged a Nation, and several books on the history of the western United States. He lives in Colorado.
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Chapter OneMountains, Glaciers, and Innumerable Rivers
Rivers, creeks, and streams almost without number course through the extent of Alaska, but it is the mountain ranges that most define its landscape. Jutting southward from the main landmass, the Aleutian Range is the backbone of the narrow Alaska Peninsula. To the north, the Alaska Range sprawls more than 500 miles across the heart of the state, rising to 20,320 feet atop the icy crown of North America. The Chugach and Wrangell-St. Elias Mountains shadow the Alaska Range to the south and wrap around southcentral Alaska's turbulent rim of fire and ice. Southeast of the St. Elias Range, the Coast Mountains march down the southeast panhandle above the emerald waters of the Inside Passage. West of the Alaska Range, the Kuskokwim Mountains are mere foothills by comparison, but this range rises above the entangled streams and wetlands of the Yukon and Kuskokwim river systems. The Kuskokwim Mountains point north toward the Brooks Range, the northernmost mountain chain in the United States and the roof above Alaska's North Slope.
Aleutian Range, Alaska Range, Chugach Mountains, Wrangell-St. Elias Mountains, Coast Mountains, Kuskokwim Mountains, and Brooks Range; these are the seven great mountain systems that define Alaska.
The Aleutian Range dominates the sweeping arc of the Alaska Peninsula and the Aleutian Islands as they slice between the waters of the Bering Sea and the North Pacific Ocean. This wild, 1,600-mile tail of Alaska is a grand necklace of rugged peaks, lowland plains, and rocky beaches cast upon a restless and frequently rambunctious sea. The highpoint of the range,11,413-foot Mount Torbert, lies near its tangled juncture with the Alaska Range. Chakachamna Lake and the Chakachatna River slice through the range just south of Mount Torbert and Mount Spurr (11,070 feet) and tempt some to lump these peaks with the Alaska Range rather than the Aleutians. South of here, however, beyond Lake Clark Pass, there can be no doubt. The active volcanoes of Redoubt (10,197 feet) and Iliamna (10,016 feet) rise above the waters of Cook Inlet to the east and sparkling Lake Clark to the west.
The Aleutian Range fades briefly near Iliamna Lake before regaining height in the peaks north and south of Mount Katmai. Had it not been for the 1912 eruption of nearby Novarupta that collapsed Katmai's summit cone, the mountain would be some 7,500 feet high. As it is, 6,715-foot Mount Katmai is one of eleven 6,000-foot-plus mountains in Katmai National Park and Preserve and one of fifteen active volcanoes lining Shelikof Strait between the peninsula and Kodiak Island.
Southwest of Katmai, Aniakchak caldera also bears stark witness to Alaska's rim of fire and ice. About 3,500 years ago, a cataclysmic eruption blew the top off Aniakchak Mountain. This caused its summit slopes to collapse, leaving a 2,000-foot-deep, six-mile-wide caldera. The Aniakchak River rises in Surprise Lake within the caldera and then cuts through its rim at the Gates, embarking on a rollicking thirty-two-mile journey to the sea.
Southwest of Aniakchak, the Alaska Peninsula ends opposite Unimak Island. This narrow waterway was called False Pass because passage on its northern end appeared blocked at low tide. Mount Shishaldin (9,372 feet) on Unimak Island towers above the strait and is one of those volcanoes with an almost perfect symmetry to its cone. Here, the terrain sweeps upward from sea level to above 9,000 feet in less than ten miles. Beyond watery Unimak Pass, the Aleutian Islands trail off across the North Pacific toward Asia's Kamchatka Peninsula. The islands get smaller as the chain bends westward, but mountains many more than 4,000 feet tall continue to dominate the landscape.
In the other direction from Lake Clark Pass, the rocky backbone of the Alaska Range curves northeastward for some 500 miles across the heart of Alaska, dividing the southcentral coast from the interior. No roads cross its crest in the western half, and it is a barrier even to the moisture-laden clouds that drop most of their load south of the range.
The U.S. Board of Geographic Names insists that the tallest mountain in the range and the highpoint of North America is called Mount McKinley. Athabascan Natives of the interior long called the mountain Denali, meaning "the high one." Charles Sheldon, who was instrumental in the creation of Mount McKinley National Park, also always referred to the mountain as Denali. Sheldon first arrived near the mountain from the north in 1906 and wrote: "Soon after starting again we caught glimpses of snowy peaks toward the south, and when we reached the top, Denali and the Alaska Range suddenly burst into view ahead, apparently very near. I can never forget my sensations at the sight. No description could convey any suggestion of it." Sheldon was not the first nor would he be the last to be fooled by this country's scale. Denali was still a good thirty miles away, but Sheldon was certainly right about the mountain's name.
The highest summits of the Alaska Range cluster about Denali: Mounts Crosson (12,800 feet), Foraker (17,400 feet), Russell (11,670 feet), and Dall (8,756 feet) curving to the southwest; Hunter (14,573 feet) and Huntington (12,240 feet) forming a barrrier to the south; and Silverthrone (13,220 feet), Deception (11,826 feet), and Mather (12,123 feet) running eastward along the crest of the range. Today, all of these summits are within Denali National Park and Preserve.
The lowest crossing of the main Alaska Range is 2,300-foot Broad Pass, the route of both the Alaska Railroad and the George Parks Highway. Broad Pass is just that almost flat and very broad sending waters either north to the Nenana-Yukon drainage or south to the Susitna River. Both the railroad and the highway ease through the remainder of the range by following the canyon of the Nenana River.Alaska
. Copyright © by Walter Borneman. Reprinted by permission of HarperCollins Publishers, Inc. All rights reserved. Available now wherever books are sold.
Table of Contents
|Prologue: Alaska--a Sense of Scale||xvii|
|Introduction: Crossing the Next Frontier||xix|
|Book 1||The Land before Time (Prehistory--1728)|
|Mountains, Glaciers, and Innumerable Rivers||4|
|First Steps, Continuing Traditions||18|
|Book 2||Lifting the Veil: An Empire Up for Grabs (1728-1865)|
|The Czar Looks East||34|
|Cook and Vancouver||49|
|Port des Francais||54|
|Lord of Alaska||60|
|God Is in His Heaven||74|
|Limitations of Empire||79|
|Book 3||Seward's Folly: Two Cents an Acre Becomes a Heck of a Deal (1865-1897)|
|Last Guns of the Civil War||94|
|The Telegraph Survey and Mr. Dall||101|
|Two Cents an Acre||106|
|Boston Men in the Pribilofs||113|
|John Muir Visits Glacier Bay||120|
|Sheldon Jackson's Missionary Zeal||127|
|Untangling the Rivers||133|
|The Lewis and Clark of Alaska||138|
|Juneau, or Whatever Its Name Is||145|
|One for the Duke||153|
|Book 4||Go North: The Rush Is On (1897-1915)|
|Fortymile, Circle, and the Sourdoughs of Rabbit Creek||168|
|The Trails of '98||176|
|Two Towns and a Railroad||189|
|One Man's Summer Vacation||200|
|Last Stops of the Mining Frontier||206|
|Crest of the Continent||220|
|Copper, Kennecott, and One Heck of a Railroad||230|
|Preserving the Bounty||238|
|The Day the Sky Turned Black||246|
|Book 5||Interlude: The Calm between the Storms (1915-1941)|
|The First Iditarod||271|
|Conflicting Views, Continuing Battles||278|
|Salmon on the Run||286|
|Thrill 'em, Spill 'em, but Never Kill 'em||292|
|Knocking around the Gates||303|
|Farmers in the Matanuska||311|
|Never the Same Again||317|
|Book 6||The Forgotten Campaign: World War II in Alaska (1941-1945)|
|The Rush to Get There||332|
|The Darkest Chapter||344|
|No Place to Fight a War||349|
|Book 7||Postwar Rumblings: Statehood and Earthquake (1945-1964)|
|Offspring of Victory||376|
|Logging the Forests||381|
|Cold War Standoff||387|
|The Forty-ninth Star||395|
|Oil Boom on the Kenai||404|
|A New Meaning of Wilderness||413|
|Book 8||North Again: This Time the Gold Is Black (1964-1980)|
|The Blue Canoes||453|
|The Long, Long Road to ANCSA||458|
|Working on the Pipeline||473|
|A Capital Move||487|
|The Permanent Fund||492|
|Book 9||Whose Land? Competing Claims (1980-2001)|
|d-2 Becomes ANILCA||502|
|The Big One||511|
|Toward a New Economy||522|
|Postscript to an Era, Prologue to the Next||537|
|Epilogue: Alaska--a Sense of Scale||539|
Most Helpful Customer Reviews
If you love wilderness, exploration, and history, give this book a chance. I new nothing of Alaska, and now feel as if I was there. This book starts with the first humans to arrive, through the battles of survival, fur trade, gold and copper rush, roads and railways, mountain climbing, fishing and farming, battles of two World Wars, and much more. Has to be the most exciting state I've ever red about. Can't wait to visit!
For a book of history that covers such a large span of years it is well written, flows through all the detail and makes you want to keep reading.
Our first trip to Alaska - August 2013. Luckily, I happened to find this book in a little bookstore in the town of Haines. I have finished the first two chapters and have learned this is a book you don't want to put down. I love the style of writing. The author is a great story teller. I am loving this history and I recommend it highly. If you read just one history of Alaska, make it this one.
I &hearts Alaska
After only 10 pages it's solved; I've gotta move to Alaska. And inpregnate a village of eskimoetts. My legacy will continue.
Fishtail was tensed and ready to jump off the Thunderpath when he reminded himself that he was dieing and that there was no point in living. So he stayed there, right in the middle of the Thunderpath. The monster saw him and screamed out a strange beeping noise. It hurt his ears and he was about to change his mind. But he didnt. The monster got closer. Its honking noises got so loud that there was a ringing in his ears. It was about to hit him and take his usless life away, when its ginormous black, rounded paws skidded across the wet Thunderpath. It was a mouse- length away when it stopped. Then its mouth swung open and a twoleg hopped out. He walked in a strange twoleg waddle. He was very plump. Fishtail felt like running, but it seemed like the rai had seeped all the energy out of him. He lay there. He did try and get up, but his leg was badly broken. The twoleg spoke in his foreign tounge. Fishtail had no idea what he was saying. Then he picked me up. He mewed at the top of his lungs, hoping that his Clan would hear him. No one answered exept the twolegs's sharp voice. Then he placed him inside of the monsters belly. He braced himself for death, for the monster to digest him. But it never hapened. He was bleeding so rapudly that he fell un-contious as the hail pattered the roof of the monster. He woke up in a bright white room. At first, he thought he had decended into StarClan. Then he saw a Twoleg lean over him- not the twoleg that almost hit him with his monster, but a different one. This one was tall, skinny, and wore bright white clothing. He had white rubber gloves on and something around his neck, too. The other twoleg was standing in the corner of the room while the white one worked on his wounds. He usee differend things to heal Fishtails wounds. This must be the twolegs' medicine cat, thought Fishtail. Then the white twoleg put something around his neck. It, too, was white, and it stretched a little further then the edge of his face. He had seen other kittypets wear them. They said that it was if they had an injury. They said it was called a cone. He growled wuth fury. Now he was healed, he will excape. A plan was already forming in his mind. (Post recomendations and comments fir part 2! Thx for reading!)
Alaska is exiting. I live here. But its very cold right now its like-40 below. But come on up