ARCH Models and Financial Applications

ARCH Models and Financial Applications

by Christian Gourieroux

Paperback(Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1997)

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The classical ARMA models have limitations when applied to the field of financial and monetary economics. Financial time series present nonlinear dynamic characteristics and the ARCH models offer a more adaptive framework for this type of problem. This book surveys the recent work in this area from the perspective of statistical theory, financial models, and applications and will be of interest to theorists and practitioners. From the view point of statistical theory, ARCH models may be considered as specific nonlinear time series models which allow for an exhaustive study of the underlying dynamics. It is possible to reexamine a number of classical questions such as the random walk hypothesis, prediction interval building, presence of latent variables etc., and to test the validity of the previously studied results. There are two main categories of potential applications. One is testing several economic or financial theories concerning the sks, bonds, and currencies markets, or studying the links between the short and long run. The second is related to the interventions of the banks on the markets, such as choice of optimal portfolios, hedging portfolios, values at risk, and the size and times of block trading.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781461273141
Publisher: Springer New York
Publication date: 10/06/2012
Series: Springer Series in Statistics
Edition description: Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1997
Pages: 229
Product dimensions: 6.10(w) x 9.25(h) x 0.02(d)

Table of Contents

1 Introduction.- 1.1 The Development of ARCH Models.- 1.2 Book Content.- 2 Linear and Nonlinear Processes.- 2.1 Stochastic Processes.- 2.2 Weak and Strict Stationarity.- 2.3 A Few Examples.- 2.4 Nonlinearities.- 2.4.1 Portmanteau Statistic.- 2.4.2 Some Implications of the White Noise Hypothesis..- 2.5 Exercises.- 3 Univariate ARCH Models.- 3.1 A Heteroscedastic Model of Order One.- 3.1.1 Description of the Model.- 3.1.2 Properties of the Innovation Process ?.- 3.1.3 Properties of the Y Process.- 3.1.4 Distribution of the Error Process.- 3.2 General Properties of ARCH Processes.- 3.2.1 Various Extensions.- 3.2.2 Stationarity of a GARCH(p, q) Process.- 3.2.3 Kurtosis.- 3.2.4 Yule—Walker Equations for the Square of a GARCH Process.- 3.3 Exercises.- 4 Estimation and Tests.- 4.1 Pseudo Maximum Likelihood Estimation.- 4.1.1 Generalities.- 4.1.2 The i.i.d. case.- 4.1.3 Regression Model with Heteroscedastic Errors.- 4.1.4 Regression Model with ARCH Errors.- 4.1.5 Application to a GARCH Model.- 4.1.6 Stochastic Variance Model.- 4.2 Two Step Estimation Procedures.- 4.2.1 Description of the Procedures.- 4.2.2 Comparison of the Estimation Methods under Conditional Normality.- 4.2.3 Efficiency Loss Analysis.- 4.3 Forecast Intervals.- 4.4 Homoscedasticity Test.- 4.4.1 Regression Models with Heteroscedastic Errors.- 4.5 The Test Statistic Interpretation.- 4.5.1 Application to Regression Models with ARCH or GARCH Errors.- Appendix 4.1: Matrices I and J.- Appendix 4.2: Derivatives of the Log-Likelihood Function and Information Matrix for a Regression Model with ARCH Errors.- 4.6 Exercises.- 5 Some Applications of Univariate ARCH Models.- 5.1 Leptokurtic Aspects of Financial Series and Aggregation.- 5.1.1 The Normality Assumption.- 5.1.2 The Choice of a Time Unit.- 5.2 ARCH Processes as an Approximation of Continuous Time Processes.- 5.2.1 Stochastic Integrals.- 5.2.2 Stochastic Differential Equations.- 5.2.3 Some Equations and Their Solutions.- 5.2.4 Continuous and Discrete Time.- 5.2.5 Examples.- 5.2.6 Simulated Estimation Methods.- 5.3 The Random Walk Hypothesis.- 5.3.1 Description of the Hypothesis.- 5.3.2 The Classical Test Procedure of the Random Walk Hypothesis.- 5.3.3 Limitations of the Portmanteau Tests.- 5.3.4 Portmanteau Tests with Heteroscedasticity.- 5.4 Threshold Models.- 5.4.1 Definition and Stationarity Conditions.- 5.4.2 Homoscedasticity Test.- 5.4.3 Qualitative ARCH Models.- 5.4.4 Nonparametric Approaches.- 5.5 Integrated Models.- 5.5.1 The IGARCH(1,1) Model.- 5.5.2 The Persistence Effect.- 5.5.3 Weak and Strong Stationarity.- 5.5.4 Example.- 5.6 Exercises.- 6 Multivariate ARCH Models.- 6.1 Unconstrained Models.- 6.1.1 Multivariate GARCH Models.- 6.1.2 Positivity Constraints.- 6.1.3 Stability Conditions.- 6.1.4 An Example.- 6.1.5 Spectral Decompositions.- 6.2 Constrained Models.- 6.2.1 Diagonal Models.- 6.2.2 Models with Constant Conditional Correlations.- 6.2.3 Models with Random Coefficients.- 6.2.4 Model Based on a Spectral Decomposition.- 6.2.5 Factor ARCH Models.- 6.3 Estimation of Heteroscedastic Dynamic Models.- 6.3.1 Pseudo Maximum Likelihood Estimators.- 6.3.2 Asymptotic Properties of the Pseudo Maximum Likelihood Estimator.- 6.3.3 Model with Constant Conditional Correlations.- 6.3.4 Factor Models.- 7 Efficient Portfolios and Hedging Portfolios.- 7.1 Determination of an Efficient Portfolio.- 7.1.1 Securities and Portfolios.- 7.1.2 Mean Variance Criterion.- 7.1.3 Mean Variance Efficient Portfolios.- 7.2 Properties of the Set of Efficient Portfolios.- 7.2.1 The Set of Efficient Portfolios.- 7.2.2 Factors.- 7.3 Asymmetric Information and Aggregation.- 7.3.1 Incoherency of the Mean Variance Approach.- 7.3.2 Study of the Basic Portfolios.- 7.3.3 Aggregation.- 7.4 Hedging Portfolios.- 7.4.1 Determination of a Portfolio Mimicking a Series of Interest.- 7.4.2 A Model for the Call Seller Behavior.- 7.4.3 The Firm Behavior.- 7.5 Empirical Study of Performance Measures.- 7.5.1 Performances of a Set of Assets.- 7.5.2 Improving the Efficiency.- 7.5.3 Estimation of the Efficient Portfolio and its Performance in the Static Case.- Appendix 1: Presentation in Terms of Utility.- Appendix 2: Moments of the Truncated Log-Normal Distribution.- Appendix 3: Asymptotic Properties of the Estimators.- 7.6 Exercises.- 8 Factor Models, Diversification and Efficiency.- 8.1 Factor Models.- 8.1.1 Linear Factor Representation.- 8.1.2 Representation with Endogenous Factors.- 8.1.3 Structure of the Conditional Moments.- 8.1.4 Cofactors.- 8.1.5 Characterization with the Matrix Defining the Endogenous Factors.- 8.2 Arbitrage Theory.- 8.2.1 Absence of Arbitrage Opportunities.- 8.2.2 Diversification and Pricing Model.- 8.2.3 Diversification and Risk Aversion.- 8.3 Efficiency Tests and Diversification.- 8.3.1 Ex-Ante Efficiency.- 8.3.2 Ex-Post Efficiency.- 8.4 Conditional and Historical Performance Measures.- 8.4.1 The Dynamics of a Model with Endogenous Factors.- 8.4.2 Tests for Ex-Ante Efficiency and Performances...- 8.5 Exercises.- 9 Equilibrium Models.- 9.1 Capital Asset Pricing Model.- 9.1.1 Description of the Model.- 9.1.2 Market Portfolio.- 9.1.3 The CAPM as a Factor Model.- 9.1.4 Spectral Decomposition of the Moments.- 9.1.5 Time Dependent Risk Aversion.- 9.2 Test of the CAPM.- 9.2.1 Some Difficulties.- 9.2.2 Testing Procedures in a Static Framework.- 9.2.3 Test for Efficiency of the Market Portfolio in a Dynamic Framework with Constant Betas.- 9.2.4 Tests in the General Case.- 9.3 Examples of Structural Models.- 9.3.1 A Model with Speculative Bubbles.- 9.3.2 The Consumption Based CAPM.

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