There has been an increasing demand for alternative fuels because of the alarming fuel crisis. Biofuels like bioethanol, biodiesel, etc. have become prominent fuel sources. Biotechnology and its techniques play a major role in production of these fuels. Some of the crucial topics that provide a comprehensive understanding of this subject are included in this book like microbial biotechnology, metabolic engineering, waste management, industrial fermentation, etc. As this field is emerging at a fast pace, this book will help the readers to better understand the applications of biotechnology for production of alternative fuels.