A variety of universal school-based programs designed to help elementary schools foster positive student behaviors, reduce negative behaviors, and, ultimately, improve academic performance are available; however, more evidence from rigorous evaluations is needed to better understand their effects. Such information is important because the development of social competencies during middle childhood has been linked to adjustment to schooling and academic success, while the failure to develop such competencies can lead to problem behavior that interferes with success in school (Bennett et al. 2003; Carlson et al. 1999; Farrington 1989; Fors, Crepaz, and Hayes 1999; Malecki and Elliot 2002; McCord et al. 2000; Najaka, Gottfredson, and Wilson 2001; O’Donnell, Hawkins, and Abbott 1995; Trzesniewski et al. 2006; Wentzel 1993).1
The Institute of Education Sciences (IES) and the Division of Violence Prevention in the National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) collaborated to conduct a rigorous impact evaluation of programs aimed at improving students’ behavior. For this evaluation, such programs were termed Social and Character Development (SACD) programs.2 Seven programs were evaluated, and all were coherent in that their activities were integrated and logically organized based on a theory of action (that differed among the programs), school-based in that they were implemented in the schools by school personnel, and universal in that they were to be implemented for all students in all elementary classrooms in a school.
This report provides the results from the evaluation of the seven SACD programs on one cohort of students as they moved from third through fifth grades starting in fall 2004 and ending in spring 2007.3 The evaluation examined the effects on these students of the seven programs, together and separately, after 1, 2, and 3 school years and also estimated the impact on students’ growth in social and character development over the 3 years. Chapter 1 discusses the evaluation of the programs when considered together and provides summary results for each program. Chapters 2 through 8 detail the findings for each of the programs individually. There are two appendixes: appendix A examines whether the addition of the smaller second cohort of students to the study affected the results, and appendix B contains additional technical information concerning the analyses.
|Publisher:||Schiffer Publishing, Ltd.|
|Product dimensions:||11.30(w) x 8.70(h) x 1.10(d)|