Paperback(Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1982)

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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9783642680229
Publisher: Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Publication date: 12/16/2011
Edition description: Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1982
Pages: 633
Product dimensions: 6.69(w) x 9.61(h) x 0.05(d)

Table of Contents

Introductory Part.- 1. Biochemistry of Gene Expression.- 1.1 Introduction: Biological Information.- 1.2 The Genetic Material.- 1.2.1 Structure of DNA.- 1.2.2 Organisation of Bacterial Chromosomes.- 1.2.3 Organisation of the Genetic Material in Eukaryotic Cells.- DNA Sequence Classes.- Basic Proteins Associated with DNA.- Non-Histone Chromosomal Proteins.- Organizational Levels of Chromatin.- 1.3 Realization of the Genetic Information.- 1.3.1 The Genetic Code.- 1.3.2 Transcription.- RNA-Polymerases in Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells.- The Transcription Cycle.- Initiation and Termination Sequences for Transscription.- 1.3.3 Transcription Products and RNA Processing.- Pre-mRNA Processing.- Processing of rRNA and tRNA Precursors.- 1.3.4 Translation.- tRNA Structure and Function.- Structure and Function of Ribosomes.- The Translation Cycle.- 1.3.5 Proteinogen Processing.- 1.3.6 Protein Degradation.- 1.4 Selected References.- 2. Restriction Enzymes and Techniques for Gene Analysis and Synthesis.- 2.1 Introduction.- 2.2 Restriction Endonucleases.- 2.3 Cloning of DNA Fragments and Generation of Clone Libraries.- 2.4 Cloning Vectors.- 2.5 In vitro Packaging of ? DNA.- 2.6 Detection of DNA Fragments by Hybridization Techniques.- 2.7 In vitro Labelling of DNA Fragments.- 2.8 Functional Characterization of mRNA and DNA Fragments in Xenopus Oocytes and in the HART Assay.- 2.9 DNA Restriction Mapping.- 2.10 DNA Sequencing.- 2.11 Gene Synthesis.- 2.12 Conclusions.- 2.13 Selected References.- General Part.- 3. “Sonderung”, Differentiation, Cell Differentiation — a Sketch of the History of Concepts.- 3.1 New Methods — New Conceptions.- 3.2 Etymology.- 3.3 Landmarks in the History of Developmental Biology.- 3.3.1 Comparative Developmental Biology.- 3.3.2 The Causal Phase of Developmental Biology.- 3.3.3 Molecular Developmental Biology.- 3.4 Selected References.- 4. Molecular Basis of Cell Differentiation.- 4.1 Cell Differentiation as a Prerequisite of Life.- 4.1.1 Definitions.- 4.1.2 Determination and Irreversibility of Cell Differentiation.- 4.1.3 Proteins and RNA’s as Primary Products of Cell Differentiation.- 4.1.4 Compartmentation of Gene Expression.- 4.1.5 Two Types of Regulatory Information.- 4.1.6 Five Main Aspects of Cell Differentiation.- 4.2 Signal Reception and Transformation.- 4.2.1 Classification of Signal Systems.- 4.2.2 Group I: Nutrient Signal Systems.- Receptor-Mediated Endocytosis and Regulation of Cholesterol Homeostasis in Animal Cells.- 4.2.3 Group II: Metabolic Integrator Systems of Bacteria.- C-Catabolite Repression.- Signal Transformation by the Glutamine Synthetase System.- 4.2.4 Group III: Hormonal Signal Systems.- Model of the Membrane-Bound Hormone Receptors and the Role of Adenylate Cyclase in Animal Cells.- Gonadotropin Control of Steroidogenesis.- Evidence for the Floating Receptor Model.- 4.3 Selective Genome Rearrangements.- 4.3.1 Transposable Elements in Bacteria.- 4.3.2 Phase Variation in Salmonella.- 4.3.3 Switch of Mating Type in the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.- 4.3.4 Middle Repetitive Sequences of Eukaryotic Chromatin Contain Transposable Elements.- 4.3.5 Transposable Control Element Systems in Maize.- 4.4 Differential Gene Expression.- 4.4.1 Gene Expression: Partial Processes and Amplification of Information.- 4.4.2 Gene Activation and Transcription.- Transcription Units in Bacteria.- The Regulatory Region of the lac Operon in Escherichia coli.- Promoter Strength — An Element of Specific Transcriptional Control.- Morphology of Transcriptionally Active Genes in Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells.- Structure and Function of Eukaryotic Genetic Systems.- Regulatory Elements of the ?-Glucuronidase Gene Complex of Mouse.- The Human Globin Gene System.- Elements of Higher Order Chromatin Structure as Related to Determination and Differential Gene Activity.- Conclusion: Properties of Activated vs. Non-Activated Chromatin.- Transcription Specificity of RNA Polymerase Isozymes.- Termination and Antitermination.- 4.4.3 Control of Pre-mRNA Processing and mRNA Degradation.- Pre-mRNA Processing: Nuclear Organization and Selective Information Transfer.- Role of Guide RNA’s.- Inactivation and Degradation of mRNA.- 4.4.4 Translation Regulation.- Elements of mRNA Secondary Structure.- Inactivation of the Cap-Binding Factor after Virus Infection.- The Translation Program of Escherichia coli RNA Phages MS2 and Q?.- Functional Compartmentation of Cytoplasmic mRNP in Eukaryotes.- Hemin-Controlled Translation Inhibition in Reticulocytes.- Functional Adaptation of the tRNA Pattern.- Translational Control in Interferon Treated Mammalian Cells.- 4.4.5 Proteinogen Processing.- Proteinogen Processing — an Essential Means to Guide Proteins to Their Proper Compartments.- The Signal Hypothesis.- Synthesis of Membrane Proteins.- Cytoplasmic Synthesis of Organellar Proteins.- Proteinogen Processing Determines Local Deposition of Chitin in Budding Yeast.- Proteinogen Processing in the Propagation Cycle of Animal Viruses.- 4.4.6 Biological Inactivation and Degradation of Proteins.- 4.5 Gene Expression Programs.- 4.5.1 Mechanisms for Coordination of Gene Expression Programs.- 4.5.2 Sequential Enzyme Induction.- 4.5.3 Bacterial Sporulatio n.- 4.5.4 Programmed Gene Expression During Erythroid Cell Specialization in Mammals.- Hemopoietic Stem Cells and Erythroid Homeostasis.- Friend Erythroleuketnia Cells as Models of Red Cell Maturation.- Regulation of Globin Synthesis and the Molecular Pathology of Thalassemia Syndromes.- “Suicide” Maturation in the Erythroid Lineage.- 4.6 Cell Differentiation and Development.- 4.6.1 Intercellular Signals Controlling the Developmental Cycle of Myxobacteria.- 4.6.2 Mechanisms of Cell Sorting and Positioning in Mammals.- 4.6.3 Morphogen Gradients Control Pattern Formation During Early Developmental Stages of Drosophila.- 4.6.4 Role of Intercellular Signals for the Development and Function of the Sexual System in Mammals.- Development of the Sexual System.- Germ Cell Differentiation.- 4.7 Conclusions.- 4.8 Selected References.- Special Part.- 5. Regulation of Adaptive Enzyme Synthesis in Prokaryotes Exemplified by the Arabinose Regulon of Escherichia coli.- 5.1 Biochemistry, Enzymatics and Genetics of the Arabinose Degradation.- 5.2 Genetic Investigations on the Control of Gene Expression in the ara BAD Operon.- 5.2.1 The Regulatory Gene ara C.- 5.2.2 The Operator-Initiator Region, ara OI.- 5.3 Catabolite Repression in the ara Regulon.- 5.4 Regulation of ara C Gene Expression.- 5.5 In Vitro Investigations to Characterize the Regulatory Mechanisms in the ara BAD Operon.- 5.5.1 Enrichment and Isolation of Genes of the ara CBAD Region.- 5.5.2 Purification and Characterization of the ara C Protein.- 5.5.3 Evidence of the Regulation Level.- 5.5.4 In Vitro Transcription and Translation of the ara CBA Genes.- 5.5.5 Electron Microscopic Localisation of the Transcription-Initiation Complex.- 5.5.6 Assay of the Codogen Strand for the ara BAD and ara C operons.- 5.6 Conclusions: Regulatory Interactions in the ara OI Region as a Model of a Complex Transcription Control.- 5.7 Selected References.- 6. Light-induced Chloroplast Differentiation.- 6.1 Structure and Function of Chloroplasts.- 6.2 The Genetic Aspect of Chloroplastogenesis.- 6.2.1 Molecular Organization of Chloroplast DNA.- 6.2.2 Sites of Coding and Synthesis of Plastid Proteins.- 6.3 Light-Induction of Plastid Differentiation.- 6.3.1 Proplastids and Etioplasts.- 6.3.2 Photoreceptors.- 6.3.3 Phases of Chloroplast Formation.- 6.4 Selected Examples of Gene Expression During Chloroplast Differentiation.- 6.4.1 Ribonucleic Acids.- 6.4.2 Ribulose-1,5-Bisphosphate Carboxylase.- 6.4.3 Leucyl-tRNA Synthetase.- 6.4.4 Thylakoid Membrane Constituents.- 6.5 Regulatory Aspects in Chloroplastogenesis.- 6.5.1 Hypothetic “Repressors” and “Derepressors”.- 6.5.2 Role of Mitochondria During Chloroplast Formation.- 6.6 Selected References.- 7. The Action of Estrogen on Gene Expression in Chick Oviduct.- 7.1 Regulation of Estrogen Biosynthesis and Estrogen Level.- 7.2 Cell Specialization Induced by Estrogen Action in Chick Oviduct.- 7.3 Structural Basis of Synthesis and Release of Ovalbumin.- 7.3.1 Organization of the Ovalbumin Gene.- 7.3.2 Structure of Ovalbumin mRNA.- 7.3.3 Translocation of Ovalbumin Through the Membrane of the Rough ER.- 7.4 Control of mRNA Transcription by Estradiol.- 7.4.1 Binding of Estradiol to Hormone Receptors.- 7.4.2 Interaction of Steroid Hormone-Receptor Complexes with Chromatin.- 7.4.3 Influence of Estradiol on RNA Polymerase Initiation Sites.- 7.4.4 Influence of Estrogen on the Transcription of the Ovalbumin Gene.- 7.4.5 Role of Non-Histone Proteins of Chromatin on Transcription of Ovalbumin-specific RNA.- 7.5 Conclusions.- 7.6 Selected References.- 8. Insulin-Biosynthesis and Mode of Action.- 8.1 Introduction: Scientific History of Insulin.- 8.2 Molecular Pathology of Diabetes mellitus.- 8.3 Development of the Endocrine Pancreas.- 8.3.1 Cell Types in the Islets of Langerhans.- 8.3.2 Differentiation of the Islet Cells.- 8.3.3 Proliferation and Neogenesis of Islet Cells.- 8.4 Mechanism of Insulin Biosynthesis.- 8.4.1 Intracellular Organization of Insulin Biosynthesis.- 8.3.2 Fine Structure of Insulin Genes.- 8.4.3 mRNA and Regulation of Transcription.- 8.4.4 Insulin is Synthesized as a Pre-Prohormone.- 8.4.5 Proinsulin, Proinsulin Processing and Insulin Degradation.- 8.4.6 Mechanism of Insulin Secretion.- 8.5 Paracrine or Endocrine Relations Between Different Cell Types of the Islets of Langerhans?.- 8.5.1 Biosynthesis of Glucagon and Somatostatin.- 8.5.2 Mechanisms of Cell-Cell Interaction in the Islets of Langerhans.- 8.6 Mechanisms of Insulin Action.- 8.6.1 Metabolic Alterations in the Target Cells.- 8.6.2 Signal Transformation and Hormone Action.- Insulin Binding to the Membrane Receptor.- Internalization of the Hormone-Receptor Complex.- Intracellular Redistribution and Degradation of Insulin.- Antireceptor Antibodies Mimic Insulin Effects.- 8.7 Conclusions.- 8.8 Selected References.- 9. Polytene Chromosomes — Model Objects for Studying Differential Gene Activities in Specialized Cells.- 9.1 Structure of Dipteran Polytene Chromosomes.- 9.1.1 Studies Employing Light and Electron Microscopy.- 9.1.2 DNA of Polytene Chromosomes.- DNA Content of Chromorneres.- Polytenization and DNA Replication.- 9.1.3 Proteins Associated with Polytene Chromosomes.- 9.2 The Puffing Phenomenon.- 9.2.1 Puffs as a Manifestation of Transcription Activity.- Puffs and RNA Synthesis.- Puffing Leads to Characteristic Changes of Chromomere Structure.- 9.2.2 Puff Patterns as Indicators of the Gene Expression Program in Polytene Tissues.- Development and Tissue Specificity of Puffing.- Hormones as Inductors of Specific Changes of Puff Patterns.- Puff Induction and Repression by Heat-Shock.- 9.3 Molecular Basis of Gene Expression of Puff DNA.- 9.3.1 Synthesis and Processing of High Molecular Weight Puff RNA of Chironomus.- 9.3.2 The Heat-Shock Gene Expression Program of Drosophila melanogaster.- 9.4 High Molecular Weight Structural Proteins of Insects are Coded by Internal Repetitive Genes: A Comparison of Balbiani Ring and Fibroin Genes.- 9.4.1 Balbiani Ring Genes of Chironomus.- Balbiani Rings and the Synthesis of Secretory Proteins.- Synthesis of High Molecular Weight Balbiani Ring RNA.- Molecular Characterization of BR-RNA and BR-DNA.- Nucleo-Cytoplasmic Transport of BR-RNA.- 9.4.2 Structure and Expression of the Fibroin Gene in Silk Glands of Bombyx mori Larvae.- 9.5 Conclusions.- 9.6 Selected References.- 10. Expression of Isozymes and Their Function in Differentiation.- 10.1 Introduction.- 10.2 Isozymes in Amino Acid Metabolism of Enterobacteria.- 10.2.1 Bacterial Isozymes Involved in Metabolic Channeling.- 10.2.2 Biosynthetic and Degradative Processes Initiated by Alternative Isozymes.- 10.2.3 Biosynthetic Threonine Deaminase and the ilv Regulon.- Multivalent Repression of Biosynthetic Threonine Deaminase.- Biosynthetic Threonine Deaminase as Part of a Complex Gene Control System.- 10.2.3 Biodegradative Threonine Deaminase: Multivalent Induction and Role of cAMP.- 10.3 Isozymes of Eukaryotic Cells.- 10.3.1 Isozymes Are Involved in Most Steps of Sugar Metabolism in Vertebrates.- 10.3.2 Three Functionally Distinct Pyruvate Kinase Isozymes in Mammals.- 10.3.3 Mammalian Signal Transformation: Involvement of Protein Kinases and Other Isozyme Systems.- The Concept of Signal Transformation.- Role of Adenylate Cyclase.- Protein Kinase Isozymes.- All Steps Involved in Signal Transformation Are Reversible.- Isozymes Involved in Signal Transformation Are Modulated by Protein Factors and Enzymes.- Recompartmentation of Protein Kinase Isozymes.- Phosphorylation of Nuclear Proteins.- Phosphorylation of Nuclear Proteins Triggered by cAMP.- Specialized Protein Kinases Encoded by Vertebrate Tumor Viruses.- Phosphorylation of Certain Non-Histone Proteins Directly Affects Transcription.- Competence and Compartmentation of Cells Provide the Basis for Specific Action of Multifunctional Protein Kinases.- 10.4 Conclusions.- 10.5 Selected References.- 11. The Expression of Secondary Metabolism — an Aspect of Cell Specialization.- 11.1 What is Secondary Metabolism?.- 11.2 Phase-Dependent Formation of Enzymes of Secondary Metabolism.- 11.2.1 The Role of Light in Triggering Formation of Enzymes Involved in Flavonoid Metabolism in Parsley Cell Cultures.- 11.2.2 Induction of Phenylalanine Ammonia-Lyase and Flavanone Synthase in Parsley Cell Cultures.- 11.3 Integration of Secondary Metabolism in the Program of Cell Specialization and Development.- 11.3.1 Expression of Alkaloid Synthesis during Chemical Specialization of Hyphal Cells of the Mould Penicillium cyclopium.- 11.3.2 Alkaloid Metabolism During the Formation of Conidiospores.- 11.4 Influence of Signals on the Expression of Alkaloid Metabolism.- 11.5 Alkaloid Metabolism in Mutants with Modified Developmental Programs.- 11.6 Conclusions.- 11.7 Selected References.- 12. Biosynthesis and Accumulation of Storage Proteins in Developing Plant Seeds.- 12.1 Stages of Seed Development.- 12.1.1 Growth Characters of Seeds.- 12.1.2 Cytological Characters of Seed Development.- 12.1.3 DNA Accumulation.- 12.1.4 Accumulation of RNA and Ribosomes.- 12.1.5 Protein Accumulation.- Biochemical Characters of Storage Proteins.- Accumulation of Storage Proteins During Seed Development.- 12.2 Regulation of Storage Protein Biosynthesis.- 12.2.1 Endoreduplication of DNA.- 12.2.2 Evidence for Transcriptional Control of the Formation of Storage Proteins.- 12.2.3 Molecular Cloning of cDNA Copies of Storage Protein mRNA and Gene Analysis.- 12.2.4 Control of Translation and Processing of Polypeptide Precursors of Storage Proteins.- 12.3 Biogenesis of Protein Bodies and the Storage of Protein Reserves.- 12.4 Conclusions.- 12.5 Selected References.- 13. Determination and Function of the Immune System.- 13.1 Introduction.- 13.1.1 The Immune System.- 13.1.2 Structure and Heterogeneity of Immunoglobulins.- 13.2 Determination and Maturation of Immune Competent Cells.- 13.2.1 Phases of Cell Specialization and the Origin of Antibody Diversity.- 13.2.2 Structure and Rearrangements of Immunoglobulin Genes.- Fusion of V- and C-Gene Segments.- Heavy Chain Switch.- Ig Transcription Unit and Pre-mRNA Processing.- 13.2.3 Generation of Antibody Diversity.- 13.2.4 Control of Gene Fusion.- 13.3 The Humoral Immune Response.- 13.3.1 Triggering of the Immune Response — Signal Transformation.- 13.3.2 Formation of Clones of Antibody Secreting Plasma Cells.- 13.3.3 Synthesis of Antibodies by Membrane-Bound Ribosomes.- 13.4 Conclusions.- 13.5 Selected References.- 14. Phage Coded Programs of Gene Expression in Escherichia coli.- 14.1 Introduction.- 14.1.1 Phage-Infected Cells as Model Systems for Cell Differentiation.- 14.1.2 Survey of Structure and Developmental Cycles of Bacteriophages.- 14.2 Selected Aspects of Phage Infection and Development.- 14.2.1 DNA Restriction and Modification.- 14.2.2 Reprogramming of the Host’s Synthetic Machinery by Phage Proteins Exemplified by the Phage T7 Development.- The Genome of Phage T7.- Two Types of RNA Polymerases.- Two Types of Promoters.- Patterns of Protein Synthesis.- Inhibitors of Host Transcription, Translation and Membrane Function.- 14.2.3 Transcription Programs of Phage ?.- Circularization, Integration and Excision of the ? Genome.- The Genetic Map of Phage ?.- Four Transcription Phases and the Role of Regulatory Proteins.- Antitermination by gp N.- Antitermination by gp Q.- The Two ?-Repressors gp cro and gp cI.- Regulatory Interaction of gp cro and gp cI in the OR Region.- ? Prophage Induction — an SOS Phenomenon.- Lysis Versus Lysogeny — the Regulatory Role of gp cII.- Post-transcriptional Control of Synthesis of Morphogenetic Proteins.- 14.2.4 Morphogenesis of Phage T4.- The Genetic Map of T4 and Characterization of Genes Involved in Morphogenesis.- Morphogenesis Proceeds by Three Independent Pathways.- The Four Stages of Head Assembly are Controlled by Proteinogen Processing and DNA Packaging.- Tail Assembly.- 14.3 Conclusions.- 14.4 Selected References.- 15. Programmed Gene Expression During Cell Division Cycles.- 15.1 The Proliferative Cell Cycle.- 15.1.1 Phases of the Proliferative Cycle.- 15.1.2 Cell Cycle Synchronization.- 15.1.3 Periodic and Continuous Events During the Proliferative Cell Cycle.- Replication of DNA.- Synthesis of RNA.- Formation of Enzymes Related to Nucleic Acid Metabolism.- Synthesis of Enzymes in Other Fields of Metabolism.- Early Models to Explain the Phase Dependence of Events.- 15.1.4 The Programmed Expression of Events Throughout the Proliferative Cell Cycle.- 15.1.5 Mitogenic Signals in Multicellular Organisms.- 15.2 Quantal Cell Division Cycle.- 15.2.1 Inhibition of Quantal Cell Division by Bromodeoxyuridine.- 15.2.2 Conservative Segragation of Parental Histones During DNA Replication — a Rationale of Quantal Cell Cycles?.- 15.3 Conclusions.- 15.4 Selected References.- 16. Control of Morphogenesis in Acetabularia.- 16.1 The Object.- 16.2 Nuclear-Cytoplasmic Interactions as Demonstrated by Surgical Experiments.- 16.2.1 Influence of the Cytoplasm on the Nucleus.- 16.2.2 Influence of the Nucleus on the Cytoplasm.- 16.2.3 Regulatory Processes Within the Cytoplasm.- 16.3 Molecular Basis of Morphogenesis in Acetabularia.- 16.3.1 Messenger RNA as “Morphogenetic Substances”?.- 16.3.2 Regulation of Enzyme Synthesis During Morphogenesis of Acetabularia and the Role of Translational Control.- Role of the Nucleus in the Synthesis of Species-Specific Proteins: Malate Dehydrogenase.- Dynamics and Control of Enzyme Synthesis as Related to Morphogenetic Events.- 16.4 Conclusions.- 16.5 Selected References.- 17. Differentiation and Development of Dictyostelium discoideum.- 17.1 Introduction.- 17.2 Biology and Life Cycle of D. discoideum.- 17.3 Chemotaxis and Cell Aggregation.- 17.3.1 Signal Reception and Transformation.- Chemotactic Movement.- Nature of Chemoattractant.- Adenylate Cyclase.- cAMP Binding Sites.- cAMP-Phosphodiesterases and Inhibitor.- 17.3.2 Cell Responses after Signal Reception.- Early Events after cAMP Addition.- Cohesive Surface Binding Proteins.- 17.4 Metabolic Alterations during Cell Specialization.- 17.5 Genetical and Molecular Biological Aspects of Development.- 17.5.1 Genome of Dictyostelium and Developmental Mutants.- 17.5.2 Gene Expression during Development.- 17.6 Conclusions.- 17.7 Selected References.- 18. Cell Differentiation and Tumorigenesis — Plant Crown Gall Tumors.- 18.1 Introduction.- 18.1.1 Description of the System.- 18.1.2 Problems Connected with Cell Differentiation in the A. tumefaciens-CGT System.- 18.2 Induction of CGT.- 18.2.1 Conditioning of the Plant Cell by Wounding.- 18.2.2 Interactions between Wound Cell and Bacterium.- 18.2.3 Ti Plasmids as Tumor-Inducing Principle.- 18.3 The Transformed CGT Cell.- 18.3.1 The T-DNA in the CGT Cell.- 18.3.2 Unlimited Cell Division Caused by Hormone Autotrophy.- 18.3.3 CGT Phenotypes.- 18.3.4 Other Characteristics of CGT Cells.- 18.4 Reversion of CGT Cells to Normal Cells.- 18.4.1 Reversion of Teratoma CGT’s.- 18.4.1 Reversion of Unorganized CGT’s.- 18.5 Differentiation of A. tumefaciens Under the Influence of Opines.- 18.5.1 Ti Plasmids as Catabolic Plasmids.- 18.5.2 Ti Plasmids as Conjugative Plasmids.- 18.6 Conclusions.- 18.7 Selected References.- 19. Aberrations in the Regulation of Cell Division and Differentiation as a Cause of Malignant Tumors.- 19.1 Introduction.- 19.2 The Origin of Cancer Cells.- 19.2.1 Carcinogenic Effects of Physical and Chemical Factors.- 19.2.2 Action of Oncogenic Viruses.- Oncogenic DNA Viruses.- Oncogenic RNA Viruses.- 19.2.3 Significance of Genetic and Epigenetic Mechanisms in the Origin of Malignant Tumors.- Role of Mutations in Tumorigenesis.- Role of Epigenetic Factors in Tumorigenesis.- Tumorigenesis as a Multistep Process Involving Genetic and Epigenetic Alterations.- 19.3 Properties of Tumor Cells.- 19.3.1 Reprogramming of Gene Expression in Tumor Cells.- 19.3.2 Alterations of the Cell Membrane.- 19.4 Tumor Therapy by Means of Biological Regulation Factors.- 19.4.1 Therapy of Malignant Tumors by Means of Hormones.- 19.4.2 Role of Cell-Specific Inhibitors of Cell Proliferation (Chalones) in Tumor Therapy.- 19.4.3 The Ability of Tumors to Differentiate: a Basis for Cancer Therapy of the Future?.- 19.5 Conclusions.- 19.6 Selected References.- 20. Subject Index.

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