Culturally Diverse Counseling: Theory and Practice by Elsie Jones-Smith adopts a unique strengths-based approach in teaching students to focus on the positive attributes of individual clients and incorporate those strengths, along with other essential cultural considerations, into their diagnosis and treatment. With an emphasis on strengths as recommended in the 2017 multicultural guidelines set forth by the American Psychological Association (APA), this comprehensive text includes considerations for clinical practice with twelve groups, including older adults, immigrants and refugees, clients with disabilities, and multiracial clients. Each chapter includes practical guidelines for counselors, including opportunities for students to identify and curb their own implicit and explicit biases. A final chapter on social class, social justice, intersectionality, and privilege reminds readers of the various factors they must consider when working with clients of all backgrounds.
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About the Author
Dr. Elsie Jones-Smith is a licensed psychologist, a certified school psychologist, and the President of the Strengths-Based Institute. She holds two Ph.D. degrees, one in clinical psychology from Michigan State University and the other in counselor education from the University at Buffalo. She is a Fellow in two divisions of the American Psychological Association, Division 17, the Society of Counseling Psychology, and Division 45, the Society for the Psychological Study of Culture, Ethnicity, and Race. She is a Diplomate in counseling psychology (ABPP), a Fellow of the Academy of Counseling Psychology, and a prior Distinguished Visitor for the American Psychological Association.Dr. Jones-Smith has extensive experience in strengths-based therapy, graduate level teaching, program evaluation (Head Start, Title –Chapter 1), tests construction, and psychological consultation with schools. Her clinical orientation is strengths-based. She has currently expanded her clinical work to include cultural neuroscience.She is the author of six books, including the recently published Culturally Diverse Counseling: Theories and Practice (Sage, 2019). Second Edition of Theories of Counseling and Psychotherapy: An Integrative Approach (2016) with Sage Publications (which presents a chapter on Neuroscience and describes it as the Fifth Force in psychology); Spotlighting the Strengths of Every Single Student: Why U.S. Schools Need a New, Strengths-Based Approach (2011, ABC-CLIO (2011); and Nurturing Nonviolent Children: A Guide for Parents, Educators, and Counselors (Praeger, 2008).Two of her articles (“The Strengths-Based Counseling Model” (which was nominated as the outstanding article in TCP for 2006) and “Ethnic Minorities: Life Stress, Social Support and Mental Health Issues” (1985) have been cited by The Counseling Psychologist as major contributions to the field of psychology. She has served on numerous editorial boards, including The Counseling Psychologist (TCP), The Journal of Counseling Psychology, and Counselor Education and Supervision.Dr. Jones-Smith has developed and published two theories in psychology: Strengths-Based Therapy and Ethnic Identity Development. In addition, she has developed a strengths-based educational approach for working with youth in schools and several instruments that measure ethnic identity development, students’ strengths, and teachers’ strengths.
Table of Contents
PrefaceAcknowledgmentsAbout the AuthorChapter 1. Culturally Responsive Strengths-Based Therapy: The Journey Introduction: The Journey to Becoming a Culturally Responsive Strengths-Based Therapist The Profound Influence of Culture Our Brains Are Culturally Connected Affirming Each Person’s Importance The Integration of Culturally Responsive and Strengths-Based Therapy Brief History and Overview of the Multicultural Movement Mastering the Multicultural Counseling Competencies Ethical Issues and Multiculturalism The Evidence-Based Movement in Multicultural Counseling Beginning the Cultural Competency Journey Levels of Counselor Competency Development Clinical Skill Development: Cultural Awareness and Knowledge Major Barriers to Culturally Competent Counseling Neuroscience, the Brain, and the Invisible Neural Barrier of Ethnic/Racial Bias Summary of Key Points Discussion Questions Key Terms References and Suggested ReadingChapter 2. Cultural Meaning Systems, Cultural Trust, and Cultural Humility Introduction Cultural Principles The Iceberg Concept of Culture Emic and Etic Perspectives on Culture Culture and Neuroscience Neuroscience and Cultural Differences The Globalization of Culture Culture and the Process of Identity Development: The Tripartite Model The Ethnic Self: Ethnicity as a Schema Research on the Positive Benefits of a Cultural Identity Does One Have to Be of the Same Cultural/Ethnic/Racial Background to Counsel Clients Effectively? Assimilation, Marginalization, Acculturation, and Acculturative Stress Culturally Responsive Counseling: Reaching Across Barriers Understanding Clients’ Cultural Stories Culturally Competent Clinical Knowledge Culturally Responsive Knowledge Skills for the Initial Interview Cultural Trust: A Critical Issue in Culturally Diverse Counseling Cultural Empathy and Cultural Competence Levels of Culturally Competent Clinical Responding The Culturally Competent Skill of Counselor Cultural Humility Toward a Model for Evaluating Culturally Competent Clinical Skill Development of Counselors Summary of Key Points Discussion Questions Key Terms References and Suggested ReadingChapter 3. Neuroscience, Multiple Cultural Identities, and Cultural Strengths Introduction Neuroscience, CACREP Standards, and Major Counseling Associations Foundational Concepts in Neuroscience for Counselors The Brain Mapping the Cultural Architecture of the Brain Cultural Identity Formation and Neuroscience Brain Regions and Cultural Identity Some Important Findings in Cultural Neuroscience Cultural Identity and the Cultural Formulation Interview for the DSM-5 The Negativity Bias of the Brain: Findings in Neuroscience Is the Brain Hardwired to See the Glass Half Empty or Half Full? Mental Health From a Neuroscientific Perspective Neuroimaging Techniques and the Brain Neuroscience: Psychotherapy Changes Your Brain The Therapeutic Relationship From a Neuroscientific Perspective Neuroscience and the Culturally Responsive Counselor Mirror Neurons and Counselors What Happens When a Counselor Focuses on a Client’s Negative Life Events? Neuroscience and Multiple Cultural Identities What Is a Multicultural Identity? The Need for Clinicians to Adopt a Multicultural Identity Summary of Key Points Discussion Questions Key Terms References and Suggested ReadingChapter 4. Strengths-Based Development, Culture, and Clinical Practice Introduction Culture, the Brain, and Strengths Development The Neurobiology of Human Strengths Development Strengths and the Brain’s Pruning Process Relational Components of Strengths Development Attachment Theory and Strengths Development Bowlby’s Theory of Attachment: The Foundation for Understanding Individual Strengths Development Significance of Attachment Relationships and Strengths Development Strengths Development and the Importance of a Trusted Relationship Strengths Development and Attention Attachment Patterns Across Cultures Significance of Cultural Attachment, Migration, and Acculturation Strengths Development, the Narrative Process, and the Mind Strengths as Dialogic Conversations With the Self Western and Eastern Views on Human Strengths: The Chinese Perspective How Do I Make Culturally Responsive Counseling Strengths-Based? The Philosophy of Strengths-Based Therapy Cultural Mindsets Culturally Responsive Strengths-Based Practice Summary of Key Points Discussion Questions Key Terms References and Suggested ReadingChapter 5. The Strengths-Based Therapy Model and Culturally Responsive Counseling Introduction The Revised Strengths-Based Therapy Model Strengths-Based Therapy Techniques Summary of Key Points Discussion Questions Key Terms References and Suggested ReadingChapter 6 Culturally Responsive Assessment and the Cultural Formulation Interview Introduction General Assessment Principles in Counseling and Psychotherapy Clinical Issues in Conducting a Qualitative, Culturally Responsive Assessment The DSM-5 and the Cultural Formulation Interview The Four Domains of the Cultural Formulation Interview Cultural Genogram: An Assessment Tool The Strengths-Based Therapy Model’s Assessment Process Creating a Strengths Genogram Assess the Client’s Potential for Self-Harm and Risk to Others Summary of Key Points Discussion Questions Key Terms References and Suggested ReadingChapter 7. Culturally Responsive Case Conceptualization and Treatment Planning Introduction Case Conceptualization: Some General Elements Culturally Responsive Case Conceptualization Case Conceptualization and the Cultural Formulation Interview Strengths-Based Case Conceptualization Strengths-Based Treatment Plans Culturally Responsive Strengths-Based Therapy Techniques Summary of Key Points Discussion Questions Key Terms References and Suggested ReadingChapter 8. Culturally Responsive Strengths-Based Therapy for African Americans Introduction The African American Population: Some Basic Demographics Historical and Psychosocial Issues for Blacks: Oppression, Discrimination, and the Legacy of Slavery African Americans and Cultural Values Cultural Strengths of African Americans NTU: An Afrocentric Model for Counseling African Americans Summary of Key Points Discussion Questions Key Terms References and Suggested ReadingChapter 9. Culturally Responsive Strengths-Based Therapy for American Indians and Alaska Natives Introduction Defining Group Membership Demographic and Population Statistics Who Is an “Authentic” or “Real Indian”? Socioeconomic Status Theory of Historical Trauma Among American Indians Ethnic/Racial Stereotypes, Racism, and Microaggressions Worldview Family Structure: The Tribe as Family Cultural Identity Cultural Values Cultural Strengths Healing: The Circle and Medicine Wheel in Indian Life Counseling Applications of the Circle and Medicine Wheel Mental Health Challenges Counseling Approaches for American Indians and Alaska Natives Summary of Key Points Discussion Questions Key Terms References and Suggested ReadingChapter 10. Culturally Responsive Strengths-Based Therapy for Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians, and Pacific Islanders Introduction Demographic and Population Statistics Historical Changes in the Asian American Profile Socioeconomic Status of Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders: 2013 Asian Americans as the “Model Ethnic Minority”: Myth or Reality? Ethnic/Racial Stereotypes, Racism, and Microaggressions Cultural Issues of Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders Asian American and Pacific Islander Communication: High-Context Culture Cultural Identity of Asian Americans: No One Identity Model for All Cultural Strengths and Contributions of Asian Americans Acculturation and Cultural Issues Affecting Mental Health Cultural Factors in Counseling Asian Americans Summary of Key Points Discussion Questions Key Terms References and Suggested ReadingChapter 11. Culturally Responsive Strengths-Based Therapy for Hispanic and Latino/a Americans Introduction Hispanic/Latino American Cultural Values Acculturation Conflicts for Hispanic/Latino Americans Cultural Identity of Hispanics and Latinos Hispanic/Latino Cultural Strengths Hispanic/Latino Physical and Mental Health Issues Counseling Approaches for Working With Hispanic/Latino Clients Summary of Key Points Discussion Questions Key Terms References and Suggested ReadingChapter 12. Culturally Responsive Strengths-Based Therapy for Arab and Muslim Americans Introduction Microaggressions Against Arab and Muslim Americans Cultural Values and Worldview of Arabs and Muslims Acculturation: Patterns and Conflicts Mental Health Issues for Arab and Muslim Americans Counseling Arab and Muslim Americans Counseling Arab and Muslim Americans: Some Recommendations Summary of Key Points Discussion Questions Key Terms References and Suggested ReadingChapter 13. Culturally Responsive Strengths-Based Therapy for White Americans of European Ancestry Introduction Socioeconomic Status of White Americans Ethnic Group Saliency for White Americans The White American Worldview Models of White Racial Identity Development The Hardiman White Racial Identity Model The Helms Model of White Identity Development Counseling White Americans of European Ancestry Summary of Key Points Discussion Questions Key Terms References and Suggested ReadingChapter 14. Culturally Responsive Strengths-Based Therapy for Women Introduction Demographics of American Women Socioeconomic Status of U.S. Women Microaggressions Against Women and Gender Inequality The Mental Health Issues of Women Counseling Approaches for Women: Feminist Therapy Dissatisfaction With Existing Psychological Theories Dissatisfaction With Diagnostic Categories and Mother Blaming Traditional Theories Versus Feminist Therapies: Six Characteristics Key Concepts of Feminist Therapy Gender Role Stereotyping Across Cultures The Social Construction of Gender Gender and Power Differentials Feminist Therapy Approaches Goals of Feminist Therapy The Role of Men in Feminist Therapy Techniques of Feminist Therapy Feminist Therapy and Multicultural Therapy Integration of Feminist Therapy With Other Approaches Summary of Key Points Discussion Questions Key Terms References and Suggested ReadingChapter 15. Culturally Responsive Strengths-Based Therapy for LGBTQ Individuals Introduction Demographic and LGBTQ Population Data Socioeconomic Status Discrimination and the Gay Rights Movement LGBTQ Identity Development Transgender Identity Development Coming Out and Gender Identity Development for Gays, Lesbians, and Bisexuals Coming Out for People of Color: A “Tricultural Experience” LGBTQ Youth and Schools LGBTQ Families: Some Facts Mental Health Issues and the LGBTQ Community Top 10 Physical and Mental Health Concerns of LGBTQ College Students Strengths of LGBTQ Populations Counseling Members of the LGBTQ Community The Therapeutic Process in Gay and Lesbian Psychotherapy Role of the Therapist in Working With LGBTQ Clients Gay Affirmative Psychotherapy Summary of Key Points Discussion Questions Key Terms References and Suggested ReadingChapter 16. Culturally Responsive Strengths-Based Therapy for Individuals With Disabilities Introduction Definition of Disability and the Americans With Disabilities Act Demographics of People With Disabilities Socioeconomic Status Major Categories of Disabilities Models of Disability Disability as a Multicultural Issue Privilege and People With Disabilities Microaggressions Toward People With Disabilities Spread: A Form of Ableism Interaction Strain and People With Disabilities Identity Development and People With Disabilities Experiencing a Disability Identity After Trauma Strengths of People With Disabilities Counseling Approaches for Individuals With Disabilities People With Disabilities and Risk for Abuse Empowerment Family Counseling and People With Disabilities Disability Affirmative Therapy and Disability Orientation Olkin’s Model of Disability and Counseling Approach Summary of Key Points Discussion Questions Key Terms References and Suggested ReadingChapter 17. Culturally Responsive Strengths-Based Therapy for Older Adults Introduction Demographics for Older Adults Western and Eastern Cultural Views on Aging Ageism Microaggressions and the Older Adult Mental Health Issues of the Older Adult Depression and Older Adults Alzheimer’s Disease and Other Cognitive Impairments Substance Abuse and Older Adults Sexuality and the Older Adult The Strengths-Based Therapy Model and the Older Adult Phases of Strengths-Based Therapy for Older Adults Additional Strengths Assessment Issues A Final Note on Clinical Intervention and Treatment Issues Summary of Key Points Discussion Questions Key Terms References and Suggested ReadingChapter 18. Culturally Responsive Strengths-Based Therapy for Immigrants and Refugees Introduction Refugee, Asylee, and Immigrant: Some Working Definitions Microaggressions, Hate Crimes, and Discrimination Against Immigrants and Refugees Mental Health Issues of Immigrants and Refugees Mental Health Issues and Pre- and Postmigration Competency Assessment for Practitioners Working With Refugees and Immigrants Counseling and Therapy Models for Working With Refugees With PTSD Culturally Responsive Strengths-Based Therapy Summary of Key Points Discussion Questions Key Terms References and Suggested ReadingChapter 19. Culturally Responsive Strengths-Based Therapy for Multiracial People Introduction Models of Multiethnic/Multiracial Identity Development Competencies for Counseling Multiracial Individuals Psychotherapy With Multiethnic/Multiracial People Summary of Key Points Discussion Questions Key Terms References and Suggested ReadingChapter 20. Social Class, Social Justice, Intersectionality, and Privilege Introduction Social Class and Culturally Responsive Counseling The Neuroscience of Poverty and Social Class Neuroscience, Social Class, and Empathy The Social Justice Movement in Counseling Intersectionality, Social Class, and Social Justice Internalized Oppression: Social Class and Ethnicity/Race Privilege, Race, and Social Class Summary of Multidimensional Privileges in a Society Social Class and Cultural Strengths: Antidote for Internalized Oppression and Stereotype Threat Summary of Key Points Discussion Questions Key Terms References and Suggested ReadingIndex