ISBN-10:
1483388263
ISBN-13:
9781483388267
Pub. Date:
12/03/2018
Publisher:
SAGE Publications
Culturally Diverse Counseling: Theory and Practice / Edition 1

Culturally Diverse Counseling: Theory and Practice / Edition 1

by Elsie Jones-Smith
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Overview

Culturally Diverse Counseling: Theory and Practice by Elsie Jones-Smith adopts a unique strengths-based approach in teaching students to focus on the positive attributes of individual clients and incorporate those strengths, along with other essential cultural considerations, into their diagnosis and treatment. With an emphasis on strengths as recommended in the 2017 multicultural guidelines set forth by the American Psychological Association (APA), this comprehensive text includes considerations for clinical practice with twelve groups, including older adults, immigrants and refugees, clients with disabilities, and multiracial clients. Each chapter includes practical guidelines for counselors, including opportunities for students to identify and curb their own implicit and explicit biases. A final chapter on social class, social justice, intersectionality, and privilege reminds readers of the various factors they must consider when working with clients of all backgrounds.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781483388267
Publisher: SAGE Publications
Publication date: 12/03/2018
Pages: 672
Product dimensions: 8.00(w) x 10.00(h) x (d)

About the Author

Dr. Elsie Jones-Smith is a licensed psychologist, a certified school psychologist, and the President of the Strengths-Based Institute. She holds two Ph.D. degrees, one in clinical psychology from Michigan State University and the other in counselor education from the University at Buffalo. She is a Fellow in two divisions of the American Psychological Association, Division 17, the Society of Counseling Psychology, and Division 45, the Society for the Psychological Study of Culture, Ethnicity, and Race. She is a Diplomate in counseling psychology (ABPP), a Fellow of the Academy of Counseling Psychology, and a prior Distinguished Visitor for the American Psychological Association.

Dr. Jones-Smith has extensive experience in strengths-based therapy, graduate level teaching, program evaluation (Head Start, Title –Chapter 1), tests construction, and psychological consultation with schools. Her clinical orientation is strengths-based. She has currently expanded her clinical work to include cultural neuroscience.

She is the author of six books, including the recently published Culturally Diverse Counseling: Theories and Practice (Sage, 2019). Second Edition of Theories of Counseling and Psychotherapy: An Integrative Approach (2016) with Sage Publications (which presents a chapter on Neuroscience and describes it as the Fifth Force in psychology); Spotlighting the Strengths of Every Single Student: Why U.S. Schools Need a New, Strengths-Based Approach (2011, ABC-CLIO (2011); and Nurturing Nonviolent Children: A Guide for Parents, Educators, and Counselors (Praeger, 2008).

Two of her articles (“The Strengths-Based Counseling Model” (which was nominated as the outstanding article in TCP for 2006) and “Ethnic Minorities: Life Stress, Social Support and Mental Health Issues” (1985) have been cited by The Counseling Psychologist as major contributions to the field of psychology. She has served on numerous editorial boards, including The Counseling Psychologist (TCP), The Journal of Counseling Psychology, and Counselor Education and Supervision.

Dr. Jones-Smith has developed and published two theories in psychology: Strengths-Based Therapy and Ethnic Identity Development. In addition, she has developed a strengths-based educational approach for working with youth in schools and several instruments that measure ethnic identity development, students’ strengths, and teachers’ strengths.

Table of Contents

Preface
Acknowledgments
About the Author
Chapter 1. Culturally Responsive Strengths-Based Therapy: The Journey
Introduction: The Journey to Becoming a Culturally Responsive Strengths-Based Therapist
The Profound Influence of Culture
Our Brains Are Culturally Connected
Affirming Each Person’s Importance
The Integration of Culturally Responsive and Strengths-Based Therapy
Brief History and Overview of the Multicultural Movement
Mastering the Multicultural Counseling Competencies
Ethical Issues and Multiculturalism
The Evidence-Based Movement in Multicultural Counseling
Beginning the Cultural Competency Journey
Levels of Counselor Competency Development
Clinical Skill Development: Cultural Awareness and Knowledge
Major Barriers to Culturally Competent Counseling
Neuroscience, the Brain, and the Invisible Neural Barrier of Ethnic/Racial Bias
Summary of Key Points
Discussion Questions
Key Terms
References and Suggested Reading
Chapter 2. Cultural Meaning Systems, Cultural Trust, and Cultural Humility
Introduction
Cultural Principles
The Iceberg Concept of Culture
Emic and Etic Perspectives on Culture
Culture and Neuroscience
Neuroscience and Cultural Differences
The Globalization of Culture
Culture and the Process of Identity Development: The Tripartite Model
The Ethnic Self: Ethnicity as a Schema
Research on the Positive Benefits of a Cultural Identity
Does One Have to Be of the Same Cultural/Ethnic/Racial Background to Counsel Clients Effectively?
Assimilation, Marginalization, Acculturation, and Acculturative Stress
Culturally Responsive Counseling: Reaching Across Barriers
Understanding Clients’ Cultural Stories
Culturally Competent Clinical Knowledge
Culturally Responsive Knowledge Skills for the Initial Interview
Cultural Trust: A Critical Issue in Culturally Diverse Counseling
Cultural Empathy and Cultural Competence
Levels of Culturally Competent Clinical Responding
The Culturally Competent Skill of Counselor Cultural Humility
Toward a Model for Evaluating Culturally Competent Clinical Skill Development of Counselors
Summary of Key Points
Discussion Questions
Key Terms
References and Suggested Reading
Chapter 3. Neuroscience, Multiple Cultural Identities, and Cultural Strengths
Introduction
Neuroscience, CACREP Standards, and Major Counseling Associations
Foundational Concepts in Neuroscience for Counselors
The Brain
Mapping the Cultural Architecture of the Brain
Cultural Identity Formation and Neuroscience
Brain Regions and Cultural Identity
Some Important Findings in Cultural Neuroscience
Cultural Identity and the Cultural Formulation Interview for the DSM-5
The Negativity Bias of the Brain: Findings in Neuroscience
Is the Brain Hardwired to See the Glass Half Empty or Half Full?
Mental Health From a Neuroscientific Perspective
Neuroimaging Techniques and the Brain
Neuroscience: Psychotherapy Changes Your Brain
The Therapeutic Relationship From a Neuroscientific Perspective
Neuroscience and the Culturally Responsive Counselor
Mirror Neurons and Counselors
What Happens When a Counselor Focuses on a Client’s Negative Life Events?
Neuroscience and Multiple Cultural Identities
What Is a Multicultural Identity?
The Need for Clinicians to Adopt a Multicultural Identity
Summary of Key Points
Discussion Questions
Key Terms
References and Suggested Reading
Chapter 4. Strengths-Based Development, Culture, and Clinical Practice
Introduction
Culture, the Brain, and Strengths Development
The Neurobiology of Human Strengths Development
Strengths and the Brain’s Pruning Process
Relational Components of Strengths Development
Attachment Theory and Strengths Development
Bowlby’s Theory of Attachment: The Foundation for Understanding Individual Strengths Development
Significance of Attachment Relationships and Strengths Development
Strengths Development and the Importance of a Trusted Relationship
Strengths Development and Attention
Attachment Patterns Across Cultures
Significance of Cultural Attachment, Migration, and Acculturation
Strengths Development, the Narrative Process, and the Mind
Strengths as Dialogic Conversations With the Self
Western and Eastern Views on Human Strengths: The Chinese Perspective
How Do I Make Culturally Responsive Counseling Strengths-Based?
The Philosophy of Strengths-Based Therapy
Cultural Mindsets
Culturally Responsive Strengths-Based Practice
Summary of Key Points
Discussion Questions
Key Terms
References and Suggested Reading
Chapter 5. The Strengths-Based Therapy Model and Culturally Responsive Counseling
Introduction
The Revised Strengths-Based Therapy Model
Strengths-Based Therapy Techniques
Summary of Key Points
Discussion Questions
Key Terms
References and Suggested Reading
Chapter 6 Culturally Responsive Assessment and the Cultural Formulation Interview
Introduction
General Assessment Principles in Counseling and Psychotherapy
Clinical Issues in Conducting a Qualitative, Culturally Responsive Assessment
The DSM-5 and the Cultural Formulation Interview
The Four Domains of the Cultural Formulation Interview
Cultural Genogram: An Assessment Tool
The Strengths-Based Therapy Model’s Assessment Process
Creating a Strengths Genogram
Assess the Client’s Potential for Self-Harm and Risk to Others
Summary of Key Points
Discussion Questions
Key Terms
References and Suggested Reading
Chapter 7. Culturally Responsive Case Conceptualization and Treatment Planning
Introduction
Case Conceptualization: Some General Elements
Culturally Responsive Case Conceptualization
Case Conceptualization and the Cultural Formulation Interview
Strengths-Based Case Conceptualization
Strengths-Based Treatment Plans
Culturally Responsive Strengths-Based Therapy Techniques
Summary of Key Points
Discussion Questions
Key Terms
References and Suggested Reading
Chapter 8. Culturally Responsive Strengths-Based Therapy for African Americans
Introduction
The African American Population: Some Basic Demographics
Historical and Psychosocial Issues for Blacks: Oppression, Discrimination, and the Legacy of Slavery
African Americans and Cultural Values
Cultural Strengths of African Americans
NTU: An Afrocentric Model for Counseling African Americans
Summary of Key Points
Discussion Questions
Key Terms
References and Suggested Reading
Chapter 9. Culturally Responsive Strengths-Based Therapy for American Indians and Alaska Natives
Introduction
Defining Group Membership
Demographic and Population Statistics
Who Is an “Authentic” or “Real Indian”?
Socioeconomic Status
Theory of Historical Trauma Among American Indians
Ethnic/Racial Stereotypes, Racism, and Microaggressions
Worldview
Family Structure: The Tribe as Family
Cultural Identity
Cultural Values
Cultural Strengths
Healing: The Circle and Medicine Wheel in Indian Life
Counseling Applications of the Circle and Medicine Wheel
Mental Health Challenges
Counseling Approaches for American Indians and Alaska Natives
Summary of Key Points
Discussion Questions
Key Terms
References and Suggested Reading
Chapter 10. Culturally Responsive Strengths-Based Therapy for Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians, and Pacific Islanders
Introduction
Demographic and Population Statistics
Historical Changes in the Asian American Profile
Socioeconomic Status of Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders: 2013
Asian Americans as the “Model Ethnic Minority”: Myth or Reality?
Ethnic/Racial Stereotypes, Racism, and Microaggressions
Cultural Issues of Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders
Asian American and Pacific Islander Communication: High-Context Culture
Cultural Identity of Asian Americans: No One Identity Model for All
Cultural Strengths and Contributions of Asian Americans
Acculturation and Cultural Issues Affecting Mental Health
Cultural Factors in Counseling Asian Americans
Summary of Key Points
Discussion Questions
Key Terms
References and Suggested Reading
Chapter 11. Culturally Responsive Strengths-Based Therapy for Hispanic and Latino/a Americans
Introduction
Hispanic/Latino American Cultural Values
Acculturation Conflicts for Hispanic/Latino Americans
Cultural Identity of Hispanics and Latinos
Hispanic/Latino Cultural Strengths
Hispanic/Latino Physical and Mental Health Issues
Counseling Approaches for Working With Hispanic/Latino Clients
Summary of Key Points
Discussion Questions
Key Terms
References and Suggested Reading
Chapter 12. Culturally Responsive Strengths-Based Therapy for Arab and Muslim Americans
Introduction
Microaggressions Against Arab and Muslim Americans
Cultural Values and Worldview of Arabs and Muslims
Acculturation: Patterns and Conflicts
Mental Health Issues for Arab and Muslim Americans
Counseling Arab and Muslim Americans
Counseling Arab and Muslim Americans: Some Recommendations
Summary of Key Points
Discussion Questions
Key Terms
References and Suggested Reading
Chapter 13. Culturally Responsive Strengths-Based Therapy for White Americans of European Ancestry
Introduction
Socioeconomic Status of White Americans
Ethnic Group Saliency for White Americans
The White American Worldview
Models of White Racial Identity Development
The Hardiman White Racial Identity Model
The Helms Model of White Identity Development
Counseling White Americans of European Ancestry
Summary of Key Points
Discussion Questions
Key Terms
References and Suggested Reading
Chapter 14. Culturally Responsive Strengths-Based Therapy for Women
Introduction
Demographics of American Women
Socioeconomic Status of U.S. Women
Microaggressions Against Women and Gender Inequality
The Mental Health Issues of Women
Counseling Approaches for Women: Feminist Therapy
Dissatisfaction With Existing Psychological Theories
Dissatisfaction With Diagnostic Categories and Mother Blaming
Traditional Theories Versus Feminist Therapies: Six Characteristics
Key Concepts of Feminist Therapy
Gender Role Stereotyping Across Cultures
The Social Construction of Gender
Gender and Power Differentials
Feminist Therapy Approaches
Goals of Feminist Therapy
The Role of Men in Feminist Therapy
Techniques of Feminist Therapy
Feminist Therapy and Multicultural Therapy
Integration of Feminist Therapy With Other Approaches
Summary of Key Points
Discussion Questions
Key Terms
References and Suggested Reading
Chapter 15. Culturally Responsive Strengths-Based Therapy for LGBTQ Individuals
Introduction
Demographic and LGBTQ Population Data
Socioeconomic Status
Discrimination and the Gay Rights Movement
LGBTQ Identity Development
Transgender Identity Development
Coming Out and Gender Identity Development for Gays, Lesbians, and Bisexuals
Coming Out for People of Color: A “Tricultural Experience”
LGBTQ Youth and Schools
LGBTQ Families: Some Facts
Mental Health Issues and the LGBTQ Community
Top 10 Physical and Mental Health Concerns of LGBTQ College Students
Strengths of LGBTQ Populations
Counseling Members of the LGBTQ Community
The Therapeutic Process in Gay and Lesbian Psychotherapy
Role of the Therapist in Working With LGBTQ Clients
Gay Affirmative Psychotherapy
Summary of Key Points
Discussion Questions
Key Terms
References and Suggested Reading
Chapter 16. Culturally Responsive Strengths-Based Therapy for Individuals With Disabilities
Introduction
Definition of Disability and the Americans With Disabilities Act
Demographics of People With Disabilities
Socioeconomic Status
Major Categories of Disabilities
Models of Disability
Disability as a Multicultural Issue
Privilege and People With Disabilities
Microaggressions Toward People With Disabilities
Spread: A Form of Ableism
Interaction Strain and People With Disabilities
Identity Development and People With Disabilities
Experiencing a Disability Identity After Trauma
Strengths of People With Disabilities
Counseling Approaches for Individuals With Disabilities
People With Disabilities and Risk for Abuse
Empowerment
Family Counseling and People With Disabilities
Disability Affirmative Therapy and Disability Orientation
Olkin’s Model of Disability and Counseling Approach
Summary of Key Points
Discussion Questions
Key Terms
References and Suggested Reading
Chapter 17. Culturally Responsive Strengths-Based Therapy for Older Adults
Introduction
Demographics for Older Adults
Western and Eastern Cultural Views on Aging
Ageism
Microaggressions and the Older Adult
Mental Health Issues of the Older Adult
Depression and Older Adults
Alzheimer’s Disease and Other Cognitive Impairments
Substance Abuse and Older Adults
Sexuality and the Older Adult
The Strengths-Based Therapy Model and the Older Adult
Phases of Strengths-Based Therapy for Older Adults
Additional Strengths Assessment Issues
A Final Note on Clinical Intervention and Treatment Issues
Summary of Key Points
Discussion Questions
Key Terms
References and Suggested Reading
Chapter 18. Culturally Responsive Strengths-Based Therapy for Immigrants and Refugees
Introduction
Refugee, Asylee, and Immigrant: Some Working Definitions
Microaggressions, Hate Crimes, and Discrimination Against Immigrants and Refugees
Mental Health Issues of Immigrants and Refugees
Mental Health Issues and Pre- and Postmigration
Competency Assessment for Practitioners Working With Refugees and Immigrants
Counseling and Therapy Models for Working With Refugees With PTSD
Culturally Responsive Strengths-Based Therapy
Summary of Key Points
Discussion Questions
Key Terms
References and Suggested Reading
Chapter 19. Culturally Responsive Strengths-Based Therapy for Multiracial People
Introduction
Models of Multiethnic/Multiracial Identity Development
Competencies for Counseling Multiracial Individuals
Psychotherapy With Multiethnic/Multiracial People
Summary of Key Points
Discussion Questions
Key Terms
References and Suggested Reading
Chapter 20. Social Class, Social Justice, Intersectionality, and Privilege
Introduction
Social Class and Culturally Responsive Counseling
The Neuroscience of Poverty and Social Class
Neuroscience, Social Class, and Empathy
The Social Justice Movement in Counseling
Intersectionality, Social Class, and Social Justice
Internalized Oppression: Social Class and Ethnicity/Race
Privilege, Race, and Social Class
Summary of Multidimensional Privileges in a Society
Social Class and Cultural Strengths: Antidote for Internalized Oppression and Stereotype Threat
Summary of Key Points
Discussion Questions
Key Terms
References and Suggested Reading
Index

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