Dr. Yoshio Nishina was a key figure in modem physics in Japan and a world pioneer in many fields of modem science such as nuclear physics, cosmic-ray physics, and radiobiology. He devoted his life to the development of science, so that his beloved country could compete with any other country in science and technology. Unfortunately, he died soon after the Second World War and did not witness the results of his great efforts. To commemorate the centennial of Dr. Nishina' s birth, a Nishina Centennial Symposium was held in Tokyo from December 5 to 7, 1990, under the co-sponsorship of the Nishina Memorial Foundation and RIKEN (the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research). The symposium was entitled Evolutionary Trends in the Physical Sciences. The title of the symposium was very broad and ambitious. Indeed, progress in physics over recent decades has been truly amazing, so much so that the present frontiers of physics extend far beyond the horizons we saw when we were young. Experiments in particle physics have revealed many new particles, and may eventually lead to the clarification of the ultimate structure of matter, though it is not known whether man will ever fully understand how natural forces are unified. At the same time, it is becoming more and more likely that the creation of the universe will finally be discovered by continuing the lines of research into physics that have been pursued over the past decades.
Table of ContentsI Memorial Session.- Yoshio Nishina, the Pioneer of Modern Physics in Japan.- Yoshio Nishina, a Founder of Modern Science in Japan.- In Memory of Dr. Yoshio Nishina.- To the Conference Commemorating the Centenary of Yoshio Nishina.- Oskar Klein and Yoshio Nishina.- Does Physics Ever Come to an End?.- II Scientific Session.- Where Do We Go from Here?.- Dynamical Symmetry Breaking.- Problems in Nuclear Physics.- Directions of Heavy Ion Physics.- The Nucleus as an Assembly of Quarks.- How Has Space Astrophysics Expanded the Horizon of Physics?.- Chaos and Complexity: The Results of Non-linear Processes in the Physical World.- New Trends in the Physics of Phase Transitions.- Nuclear Fusion, Its Physics and Technology.- Cold Fusion Does It Have a Future?.- High Temperature Superconductivity: History and General Review.- SO(4) Symmetry in a Hubbard Model.- Some Trends in Solid State Physics.- From Physics to Synergetics.- Physics, Computation, and Biology.- Order in Molecular Biology.- Closing Address: History of RIKEN.- Index of Contributors.