Experimental Techniques in Nuclear and Particle Physics

Experimental Techniques in Nuclear and Particle Physics

by Stefaan Tavernier

Paperback(2010)

$74.99
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Overview

I have been teaching courses on experimental techniques in nuclear and particle physics to master students in physics and in engineering for many years. This book grew out of the lecture notes I made for these students. The physics and engineering students have rather different expectations of what such a course should be like. I hope that I have nevertheless managed to write a book that can satisfy the needs of these different target audiences. The lectures themselves, of course, need to be adapted to the needs of each group of students. An engineering student will not qu- tion a statement like “the velocity of the electrons in atoms is ?1% of the velocity of light”, a physics student will. Regarding units, I have written factors h and c explicitly in all equations throughout the book. For physics students it would be preferable to use the convention that is common in physics and omit these constants in the equations, but that would probably be confusing for the engineering students. Physics students tend to be more interested in theoretical physics courses. However, physics is an experimental science and physics students should und- stand how experiments work, and be able to make experiments work.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9783642426025
Publisher: Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Publication date: 11/22/2014
Edition description: 2010
Pages: 306
Product dimensions: 6.10(w) x 9.25(h) x 0.03(d)

Table of Contents

1 Introduction 1

1.1 Documentation 1

1.2 Units and Physical Constants 2

1.3 Special Relativity 3

1.4 Probability and Statistics 7

1.5 The Structure of Matter at the Microscopic Scale 9

1.6 Nuclei and Nuclear Decay 16

1.6.1 The Beta Decay 17

1.6.2 The Alpha Decay 18

1.6.3 The Gamma Decay 19

1.6.4 Electron Capture and Internal Conversion 19

1.6.5 The Radioactive Decay Law 20

1.6.6 The Nuclear Level Diagram 21

1.7 Exercises 22

References 22

2 Interactions of Particles in Matter 23

2.1 Cross Section and Mean Free Path 23

2.2 Energy Loss of a Charged Particle due to Its Interaction with the Electrons 25

2.3 Other Electromagnetic Interactions of Charged Particles 31

2.4 Interactions of X-Rays and Gamma Rays in Matter 39

2.5 Interactions of Particles in Matter due to the Strong Force 45

2.6 Neutrino Interactions 49

2.7 Illustrations of the Interactions of Particles 51

2.8 Exercises 53

References 53

3 Natural and Man-Made Sources of Radiation 55

3.1 Natural Sources of Radiation 55

3.2 Units of Radiation and Radiation Protection 59

3.3 Electrostatic Accelerators 62

3.4 Cyclotrons 65

3.5 The Quest for the Highest Energy, Synchrotrons and Colliders 72

3.6 Linear Accelerators 80

3.7 Secondary Beams 90

3.8 Applications of Accelerators 93

3.9 Outlook 99

3.10 Exercises 102

References 102

4 Detectors Based on Ionisation in Gases 105

4.1 Introduction to Detectors for Subatomic Particles 105

4.2 Ionisation and Charge Transport in Gases 107

4.3 Ionisation Chambers 111

4.4 Counters with Gas Amplification 116

4.5 Applications of Counters with Gas Amplification 126

4.5.1 Proportional Counters for X-Ray Detection 127

4.5.2 Gas Counters for the Tracking of High-Energy Charged Particles 128

4.5.3 Applications of Gas Counters in Homeland Security 135

4.6 Recent Developments in Counters Based on Gas Amplification 135

4.6.1 Micro-strip Gas Counters (MSGC) 136

4.6.2 GEM and MICROMEGAS Counters 137

4.6.3 Resistive Plate Chambers 139

4.7 Exercises 141

References 141

5 Detectors Based on Ionisation in Semiconductor Materials 143

5.1 Introduction to Semiconductors 143

5.2 The Semiconductor Junction as a Detector 150

5.3 Silicon Semiconductor Detectors 156

5.4 Germanium Semiconductor Detectors 159

5.5 Other Semiconductor Detector Materials 161

5.6 Exercises 164

References 165

6 Detectors Based on Scintillation 167

6.1 Introduction to Scintillators 167

6.2 Organic Scintillators 168

6.3 Inorganic Scintillators 171

6.4 Photodetectors 177

6.5 Using Scintillators in the Nuclear Energy Range 185

6.6 Applications of Scintillators in High-Energy Physics 192

6.7 Applications of Scintillators in Medicine 198

6.8 Exercises 207

References 207

7 Neutron Detection 209

7.1 Slow Neutron Detection 209

7.2 Neutron Detectors for Nuclear Reactors 213

7.3 Fast Neutron Detection 216

7.3.1 Detectors for Fast Neutrons Based on Moderation 216

7.3.2 Detectors Based on the Observation of the Recoil Nuclei 218

7.4 Exercises 224

Reference 224

8 Electronics for Particle Detectors 225

8.1 Introduction 225

8.2 Impulse Response and Transfer Function 230

8.3 Amplifiers for Particle Detectors 238

8.4 The Thermal Noise of a Resistor 246

8.5 Resistor and Transistor Noise in Amplifiers 253

8.5.1 Noise Contribution of a Parallel Resistor or a Series Resistor 254

8.5.2 Noise Due to the First Transistor 258

8.6 Shot Noise 262

8.7 Summary and Conclusions 266

8.8 Exercises 268

References 269

Solutions to Exercises 271

Annex 1 Physical Constants 295

Annex 2 International System of Units 296

Annex 3 Atomic and Molecular Properties of Materials 297

Annex 4 Periodic Table of Elements 299

Annex 5 Electromagnetic Relations 300

Annex 6 Commonly Used Radioactive Sources 302

Index 303

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